Regulations and Research
Laws, Regulations and Guidelines
Anyone conducting research with animals must be familiar with the laws, regulations, and guidelines for the
care and use of research animals. This includes investigators, fellows, graduate students
SHEEP HANDLING, INJECTIONS, & BLOOD COLLECTION:
Sheep are flock animals and may feel threatened if separated from the flock
Having no natural defenses, they find security from being among other sheep
When handling and housing sheep it is s
BIRD HANDLING, INJECTIONS AND BLOOD COLLECTION:
Handling of budgies and finches
Birds are fragile
o Bird bones are of low density, are hollow and are easily fractured
o Birds tend to become stressed easily
o Birds tend not to show signs of illness until t
XENOPUS HANDLING, AND INJECTIONS:
Wear powder-free gloves
Use soft fine mesh net, wetted with de-chlorinated water.
Support entire body.
Avoid disrupting mucous layer.
Handle firmly and carefully
Hold around pectoral girdle, and support hind limbs
Introduction - Disease and Diagnosis
Infection with pathogens may cause clinical (overt) or sub-clinical effects which can profoundly
distort normal physiology. Subclinical infection may be active but not apparent throughout an
experiment; e.g., Mycoplasm
A state of controllable, reversible insensibility in which sensory and motor responses are
depressed - Flecknell 1966
The art and practice of chemical restraint is predicated on a thorough understanding of a number
of general princip
SURGERY AND POST-OPERATIVE CARE
The goals of surgery are to minimize contamination, minimize discomfort/pain/stress, and maximize the survival of
the patient, to ensure a rapid and a successful outcome. To achieve these goals, there a
PAIN MANAGEMENT - ANALGESIA
Analgesics (painkillers) are mandatory for every animal either recovering from surgery or experiencing a
"painful" procedure. Type of analgesics used depends on the species and the type of pain being
Accepted Methods of Euthanasia
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) will only accept for review and
approval those methods recommended by the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. Acceptable methods
Overdose with an anesthetic, such as sodiu
SWINE HANDLING, INJECTIONS, & BLOOD COLLECTION:
Pigs without human interaction tend to respond with fear to human presence.
Pigs in biomedical research should be subjected to positive interactions with people to
decrease or eliminate the fear res
GUINEA PIG HANDLING, INJECTIONS, & BLOOD COLLECTION:
Guinea pigs are docile and rarely bite
Gently grasp the chest and always support the hind quarters
o Between shoulder blades
o Maximum 2 ml
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee - IACUC
The IACUC oversees and evaluates the entire animal care program to ensure that it is in compliance with the
Public Health Services (PHS) Policy, and the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). The IACUC serves as the
The 3 R's
In 1959 Drs. Russell and Birch wrote the book called The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which
defined an approach to the use of animals in research that has become universally accepted. The 3 Rs refer
Replacement of animals by
Occupational Health and Safety in Biomedical Research
Personal health and safety in biomedical research can be impaired through contact with hazardous materials
and environments, and through contact with animals or animal products.
Physical, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Hazards
Research Protocols may introduce toxic chemicals, pathogens or radioactive materials into animals. These
hazards may be present in the animal's blood and tissues and may be shed in the urine, feces a
Introduction -Animal Handling and Blood Collection
Blood sampling is a very common procedure but it requires knowledge of an animal's anatomy
In order to sample blood, the body's primary defense, the skin, must be breached.
RAT HANDLING, INJECTIONS, & BLOOD COLLECTION:
Most routine and research manipulations occur during the daily light phase, when these
nocturnal animals would typically be resting or asleep.
By talking quietly to a rodent when approaching and opening a cage
RABBIT HANDLING, INJECTIONS, AND BLOOD COLLECTION:
Only about 8% of the body weight of a rabbit is a skeletal structure.
The muscle mass of a rabbit relative to bone structure makes it highly susceptible to
lumbar fracture or dislocation.
Compared to a ca
CHINCHILLA HANDLING, INJECTIONS, AND BLOOD COLLECTION:
Lift by base of tail
Support body with other hand
Chinchillas will sit quietly in the crook of your arm
Maintain control by holding onto base of tail.
For restraint grasp thorax
DOG HANDLING, INJECTIONS, & BLOOD COLLECTION:
Use a leash to remove a dog from the animal holding room.
o Smaller dogs can be carried
Talk to the dog with a calm and reassuring voice
Use room 315 for examination, treatments, and non-surgical