Example: Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD
Obsessions produce anxiety, which the compulsion reduces
Not about real-life worries obsessions are irrational
Compulsions can be physical or mental
Pros and cons of using the DSM
Massive Elementary Psychology Final Exam Study Guide
I. Language and Thinking
a. Whorfian Hypothesis
i. Language determines thought
1. Words in language influence thought and perceptions
2. Foundation of reality is imposed by language
3. Each cul
. Two identical lumps of clay initially judged to be identical by a child are
later judged to be different after one of the lumps is rolled into a large
pancake shape. The child apparently lacks a:
a. sense of object permanence.
b. concept of conservation
What are the five different tastes and give an example of each.
a. Sweet (Candy) , Salty (Popcorn), Sour (Lemon), Bitter (Coffee), and Umami (Yummy-savory
taste, example: Soy Sauce)
What are the two components of flavor?
a. Flavor is the combination of ta
Psychology Notes for Exam 2
Sensation and Perception
a. Sensation: process by which our sensory receptors and our nervous system
receive and represent stimuli from the environment
b. Perception: organizing and interpreting sensory info
PSYCHOLOGY STUDY GUIDE
Applications of Learning:
1.) Gradual Desensitization=gradual extinction of phobias
2.) Aversion Therapy= pair bad habit with negative stimulus
Thorndikes Law of Effect:
1.) Followed by positive response, more likely to do
Brain & Behavior 1: Einsteins brain
I. What Makes Us Smart?
A. Einsteins brain: Used to answer this question. No straightforward answer, though.
Einsteins brain showed some differences in one region,
PRACTICE Test Questions1. What are the 3 characteristics of science? A.
Structured Empiricism (observation),
Verification, Testable Hypotheses
2.What would be the independent variable in
an experiment about depression? a. The drug
3. What are
Place Theory Different tones excite different areas of the basilar membrane and primary
- Explains perception of high-pitched tones
(5,000 HZ to 20,000 HZ)
Frequency Theory- (20-100 hz). And Volley Theory (100-500
Piaget focused on logical thinking, in a stage theory, that one stage builds on the next.
Assimilation: perceiving or thinking about new objects in terms of existing knowledge within a
All infants under 8 months of a
DSM- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
-Diagnostic tool for mental disorders
-Released this year
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
-DSM5 five of the following symptoms present all
The brain is 2% of body weight
Uses 15% of energy and oxygen
What is the brain made of?
Billions of neurons
Glial cells (helper cells)
Neurons are the building blocks of the brain
What's so special about neurons?
Elementary Psychology Exam 3 Notes
a. Nature vs. Nurture
a.i. Are you born with a personality or is personality shaped by experience
a.ii. Two contrasting views of language
a.ii.1. Innate Linguistic Ability View
Different cortical cells respond maximally to different types of stimuli.
Feature detector cells allow us to detect lines and edges.
Simple cells- Detect orientation specific slits of light in a particular location
Complex cells- also orientation specific
Elementary Psychology Final Exam Study Guide (Discussion Notes)
a. What is Personality Psychology?
i. The biologically and environmentally determined characteristics within
the person that account for distinctive and relatively
Views of Sleep and Dreaming
As far as I know, the only reason we need to sleep that is really, really solid is because we get
sleepy. (Dement, 2010)
1. Conserve & Restore View- Restorative Theory
We sleep to conserve energy and to restore aspects of our p