1. Formal Command
When you address one OR several people in a formal manner, you must use this form. The verb takes the -en
ending of the Sie form, and the pronoun Sie is always placed immediately after the verb.
Nehmen Sie das Buch!
DATIVE case - the third of Germans four cases.
Youll notice that whereas in the accusative case, only the mascul
The Genitive Case
The genitive case is used in German to express either:
possession, ownership, belonging to or with:
Hier ist das Auto meines Vaters.
Hast du die Freunde meiner Schwester gesehen?
Here is my fathers car.
Did you see my sisters
The Perfect Tense
play - played
spielen - gespielt
speak - spoken
sprechen - gesprochen
learn - learned
lernen - gelernt
give - given
geben - gegeben
Like English, German has a group of regular (termed weak) verbs that always add a -t ending for the past
The Passive Voice In German
German uses a very similar structure for the passive: the important difference is that instead of 'is' (to
be) as the auxiliary verb, German forms the passive with werden. Like in English, the accusative direct
object of an act
What is mood?
There are three "moods" which apply to verbs: indicative, imperative, and subjunctive. Although
you may not realize it, you have already learned tenses in the indicative and imperative moods.
Indicative: a verb is
The pronouns for me (mich) and us (uns) are very much like English. The pronouns for him, her,
it and them follow
Nominative, Accusative, and Dative: When to Use Them
for the subject of a sentence: who or what is doing this?
Der Student lernt Deutsch.
for predicate nouns: when the main verb is sein or werden, use the nominative for both subject
Nominativ und Akkusativ
What is the subject of a sentence?
The subject of a sentence is the person or thing that is doing the verb. To find the subject, look
for the verb and ask Who or what is doing? Subjects are always in the NOMINATIVE CASE.
What is t
When does an adjective need an ending?
There are two ways to use adjectives in a sentence: as a descriptive adjective ("the house is nice"), or as an
attributive adjective ("it is a nice house"). All attributive adjectives - that is, adj