Spanish Civil War (19361939) - The result of the complex political and even cultural
rift in Spain.
Sphere of Influence - A territorial area over which political or economic influence is
wielded by one nation.
Stalin, Joseph (1879-1953) - Bolshevik revolu
Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987.
With the Soviet Union on the verge of economic collapse, a young, vigorous, and creative
General Secretary, Mikhail Gorbachev, came to power. Gorbachev created the policy of
Glasnost, or "Openness," which allowed criticism of th
Anschluss (1938) - The inclusion of Austria in a "Greater Germany"; in contast with the
Ausschluss, the exclusion of Austria from Imperial Germany in 1871.
Ancien Rgime ("Old Order") - the social and political system established in France
under the absolu
Belgian Congo - An area of central Africa, which was under formal control of the
Belgian parliament from 1908 to 1960. The Belgian administration was one of
paternalistic colonialism in which the educational and political system was dominated by
The Fall of the Soviet Union
The failure of Glasnost and Perestroika to revive the situation in the Soviet Union resulted in its
In 1989, the first free elections since 1917 were held for the Soviet Congress. Boris Yeltsin was
elected and became t
Khrushchev tried to reform collectivized agriculture and to shake up the Communist Party in
order to remove inefficiency, so the Party forced him out in 1964.
The West regards Khrushchev as generally unpredictable, especially considering his actions in
In 1951, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established with Belgium, West
Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy, and the Netherlands as members.
In 1957, the Treaties of Rome established the European Atomic Energy Community
(EURATOM) and the E
From 1998 through 2006, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder of the SPD served. He is most
prominently known for his adamant opposition to the U.S.
U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.
After elections in 2006, Angela Merkel became Chancellor and is a member of the CDU.
With German defenses crumbling in the east and west, Hitler finally realized that his fate was
After World War II, Germany became divided into East and West Germany. West Germany,
formally the Federal Republic of Germany, aligned itself with the West, while East Germany
was possessed by the Soviet Union.
In 1948, the Berlin Airlift took place. The
Cecil Rhodes - (1853-1902) British imperialist and the effective founder of the state of
Rhodesia (since 1980 known as Zimbabwe), named after himself. He profited greatly
from southern Africa's natural resources, generally at the expense of the natives; s
Consubstantiation - Lutheran belief that in the Eucharist sacrament, the spirit of Christ
is present in the bread and wine, but they are not actually the body and blood of Christ
Continental System - Foreign economic warfare poli
Defenestration of Prague (Second) (1618) - Act of revolt of the Bohemian aristocracy
against the election of Ferdinand II, a Catholic zealot, as ruler of the Holy Roman
Deism - Belief in a God as the creator, based on reason instead of faith (Enli
Romanticism (18th century) - Artistic and intellectual movement, after the
Enlightenment period, stressing strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical
correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social conventions.
Rotten borough - A small Bri
Protestant Wind - Term used to refer to one of two incidents in which weather favored
Protestants in battle: 1) the storm which wrecked the Spanish Armada, preventing an
invasion of England (1588); 2) the favorable winds that enabled William III to land i
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) - Military leader and politician who led an overthrow of
the British monarchy in the English Civil War; established the Commonwealth of
England over which he ruled as Lord Protector.
Open-Door Policy - Maintenance of equal comm
Napoleonic code - French code of civil law, established by Napolon on March 21, 1804,
to reform the French legal system in accordance with the principles of the French
National Socialist German Workers' Party - The Nazi party which was led to
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873) - The nephew of the Emperor Napoleon I of
France; member of the Carbonari in his youth; elected President of the Second Republic
of France in 1848; reigned as Emperor Napoleon III of the Second French Empire from
John Calvin (1509-1564) - Founder of Calvinism in Geneva, Switzerland (Protestant
John Kay (1704-1780) - British inventor of the flying shuttle for weaving, a catalyst of
the Industrial Revolution.
John Knox (1505-1572) - A Protestant reform
Heresy - Holding of beliefs which are contrary to those of organized religion.
Huguenot - Member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (Protestant
Humanism - A secular ideology centered on human interests, stressing the value of the
English Civil War (1642-1649) - A civil war fought between supporters of Charles I,
(king of England, Scotland, and Ireland) and the Long Parliament led by Oliver
Erich Ludendorff (1865-1937) - German general responsible for capturing the forts
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) - War fought between France and Prussia over a
possible German claim to the Spanish throne.
French Academy of Sciences (1666) - Learned society founded by Louis XIV to
encourage French scientific research.
"stagflation" - high unemployment and inflation resulting from high oil prices. Thatcher was
closely allied with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and employed "trickle-down" supply side
economics, cutting taxes on the wealthy in hopes that they would spend th
After a series of Italian military disasters in Greece and North Africa, the leaders of his party
At the age of 14, Stalin entered the Tiflis Theological Seminary. By his own testimony, the
discipline there was another impetus toward revolutionary activism. In 1898 he became
Father Gapon when an estimated 1,000 workers were killed by Cossacks who fired on
during the interim between the
Central Powers Central Powers wasthe name given to the militaryalliance of Germany and
TRIPLE ALLIANCE with Italy, but in 1915 the latter entered the war on the other side.
their accomplishments were impressive. They destroyed the excessive power of the army,