What is the universe made of?
74% of matter in universe is hydrogen
24% of matter in universe is helium
2% of matter in universe is "heavy elements"
-Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter around us
Components of an
Evolution of real multicellularity
All cells share the same DNA Cells specialize into different tissues separation of germ line and
3 hypotheses for the root causes of the Cambrian Explosion
Interactions between predators and prey
Every new biolog
Life in the Early solar system?
What is an atmosphere?
A layer of gas that surrounds a planet or satellite.
Earth: 2/3rds of atmosphere within 10km of surface.
How do you lose an atmosphere?
Why is Venus so hot?
Has Venus always
Possible energy sources in the sun:
-pressure of Sun's layers> contraction
-Gas temperature increases as gas contracts
Sun would have started as hundreds of times larger and could only be 25 million years
old to produce energy rate
Why be multicellular?
1. Any given single cell in a plant, animal, or fungus has the same general structure
(nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane) as most single celled eukaryotes. What
advantages might multicellularity have? What can multicellular organi
Solar Storms: Sun- Earth Connection
Get deflected around the earth
A star changes over its lifetime
Stability of the sun:
OUTWARD gas pressure
INWARD gravity of Sun's incredible mass
Pluto has always bee
What is science?
-Science is concerned with understanding natural phenomena.
-Hypothesis must be testable/falsifiable
The process of doing science fits a general pattern
-make observations>ask a question> suggest a hypothesis> make a prediction> perform a
Cambrian (542 to 488 Ma)
(1) Why is the Cambrian explosion so important to the origin of multicellular life?
(Think about current examples of life and their relationship to the Cambrian
We begin seeing animal groups like today enter the fossil re
Today: How did life as we know it originate?
DNA; Deoxyribonucleic acid
Nucleus: Structure that encloses the cells genetic material
Genome: all of the DNA genetic material in an organism
Chromosomes: visible manifestations of the DNA contains genes in a l
Pb Isotopes and the Age of the Earth
The Age of the Solar System
Calcium-Aluminum Inclusions- found in Chondrites
Expected to be oldest objects in Solar System
Made of first phases to condense out of hot nebula
Table 6 Team B
Shubin Synthesis Writing Assignment
Shubin wrote this book to give a creative overview of how the universe came to be and
how humans are connected on a larger scale to the creation of the universe. He starts off talking
LTU (Ch 8): Mars
Why has Mars historically been interesting to us in terms of aliens, possible
o Mars has evidence for the resources needed for life to exist and it lies
within the Suns habitable zone.
What are the physical conditions like on Mars t
Geological Epochs relevant to Primate Evolution and their geological sequence
Late Cretaceous Epoch (100.5-66mya)
o Extreme variability in dinosaurs followed by their rapid extinction at the
K- Pg boundary (Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary
Why do we predict the evolution of biological complexity even when evolutionary
change is random?
o Evolutionary change can be random (drift)
o BUT it can be influenced by environment (Natural Selection)
o Model predicts that even completely random change
Origin of Birds, Dinosaurs, Evolution and Radiation of Mammals
When was the Mesozoic period?
250 to 65 mya Age of Reptiles
When did the Cretaceous extinction occur?
Why is the origin of the Cretaceous extinction controversial?
Fire technology in terms of sporadic use; which hominin group(s)
Something catches on fire from lightening and they try to preserve it, but they
cant make their own, homo erectus
Fire technology in terms of regular/persistent use and con
What types of animals built reefs during the Devonian period?
Rugose corals (cnidaria), Tabulate Corals (cnidaria), stroma toporoids(porifera)
Where was Iowa located during the Devonian period on Earth?
Near the equator-tropical
What were the physical c
Anthropoid and Ape Evolution:
Which is the best known fossil locality for the earliest anthropoids?
Old World monkey and Ape dental formula
Two key postcranial anatomical traits defining Apes
Absence of tail
Shortened trunk (lumba
What were the main causes of the mass extinctions? (TOPCD)
1. Ordovician- caused by global cooling, sea level drop
2. Devonian- global cooling from increased oxygen in atmosphere from plants
invading land, anoxia to sea
3. Permian- caused by global warmi
Review of Evolution/Natural Selection (B2)
What is evolution? Can you apply your definition to different scenarios?
A change in inherited traits of a population of organisms over many
generation/descent with modification
What is life? Can you apply your
What are two major types of data used to construct phylogenetic trees?
Morphological character- similarities organisms have w/ each other- ex. Humans
& chimps grouped together
DNA Sequence- aligning DNA sequences (ABAACT)
Fossil Record of the History of