1x33 The density of a certain type of jet fuel
is 775 kglm. Determine its Specic gravity and
56 _ _F_. -= 775:5
[:1on WC (0490 its
5/:pg = (775 )(f L34
1.3.4! A hydrometer is usad to measure the specic gravity of liq-
. uids. (See Video
.- 2.310 For the great depths that may be en-
* countered in the ocean the compressibility of sea-
water may become an important consideration
' (:1) Assume that the- bulk modulus for seawater ?"
is constant and derive a relationship between -
.I.'.58 One type of capillary-tube viscometer is showu in
Video Vl.5 and in Fig. P158. For this device the liquid to
be tested is drawn into the tube to a level above the top
etched line. The time is then obtained for the liquid to drain
to the bottom etc
no Assume that a person skiing high in the mountains at .an
altitude of- 15,000 ft takes in the same volume of hair with each
breath as she does while walking at sea level. Determine the ratio
of the mass of oxygen inhaled for each breath at this high alt
"I - . . ,
E '1, BE A li-lIL-diameter-circe13r plete is placed ovet e xed
E. bottom plate with a (Llin. gap between the two plates lled
: . a _ _ _ .
' ' ' - * l - : . L . E _.
I - Ewith glycerin as show'n in Fig. PI.BQ.Detetmine
2.3-5 A square gate (4 m by 4 m) is located on the 45 face.
of a dam. The top edge of the gate lies 8 m below the water
surface. Determine the force of the water on the gate and the
pointzthrough which it acts.
FR: M, A . \/
ac: 57am 1- mm) 553-: 55
1.76 There are many uids that exhibit nonNewtonian behavior
(see; for example, Video V1.6). For a given uid the distinction
between Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior is usually based
on measurements of shear stress and rate of shearing strain. As-
13.5 Nitrogen is compressed to a density of
4 kglm under an absolute pressure of 400 kPa.
Determine the temperature in degrees Celsius,
2/92: s M .r = 337K
cfw_6 i )tm. 8 )
m4 3 15,. . K
7, = 7; 273 =' 337K273 = 69
1. 4 An open 2-mm-diameter tube is inserted
into a panof ethyl alcohol and a similar 4~mm-
diameter tube is inserted into a pan of water. In
which tube will the height of the rise of theuid
column due to capillary action be the greatest?
Assume the angle
2 .150n a given day a barometer at the base of the Washington
Monument reads 29. 97in. of mercury What would the barometer
reading be- when you carry it up to the observation deck 500 ft
above the base of the monument?
Let ( )5 and( )d Correspand fa
1.52. The helium-lled blimp shown in Fig. P1,5'gis used at var-
ious athletic events. Determine the number of pounds of helium
within it if its volume is 68,000 ft3 and the temperature and pres-
sure are 80 F and 14.2 psia, respectively.
H FIIGUFIIE [31.5
1.86 A pivot bearing used on the shaft of an electrical instrument
is shown in Fig. P1.9.An oil with a viscosity of AP = 0.0101b-s/ft2
lls the 0.001-in. gap between the rotating shaft and the station-
ary base. Determine the frictional torque on the shaft
Weight, W. V's Angular Velocity: a;
Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity. m
Problem 1. IL?
Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity, m
Corn Syrup 1.119. Capillary Tillie Vi
2.5 An unknown immiscible liquid seeps into the bottom of an
open oil tank. Some measurements indicate that the depth of
the unknown liquid is 1.5 m and the depth of the oil '(specic
weight = 8.5 kN/m) floating on tap is 5.0 m. Apresmre gage
I, (15 Estimate the increase in pressure (in psi)
required to decrease a unit volume of mercury
(If: r: ._ 51H
I 37 A I-m3 volumeof water is contained in
a rigid container. Estimate the change in the vol-
ume of the water
2" An inverted 0.1-rn-diameter circular cylinder is par
tially lledwith water and held in place as shown in Fig, 132.71
A force of 20-N is needed to pnll the flat plate from the cylinder.
Determine the air pressure within the cylinder. The plate is n
2J3! A water-led U-tube manometer is used to measure therpressure
inside a tank that contains air. The water level in the U-tube on the side
that connects to mental: is 5ft above the base of the tank The water
level in the other side of the U-tube (which
[.3 Q The information on a can of pop indicates that the can
. contains 355 ml. The mass of a full. can of pop is 0.369 kg
while an empty can weighs 0.153 N. Determine-the specic
Weight, density, and specic gravity of the pop and compare
1.72 Use the value of the viscosity of water
given in Table B.2 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40,
60, 80, and 100 C to determine the. constants D
and B which appear in Andrades equation (Eq.
1.11). Calculate the value of the vi-scosityat 50 CC
2.6] The manometer uid in the manometer of Fig. P2.
has a specic gravity of 3.46. Pipes A and 3 both contain water;
If the pressure in pipeA'is decreased by 1.3 psi and the pressure ' '
in pipe 8 increases by 0.9psi,:.de:ermine the new differential T
L69 SAE 30 oil at 60 F ows through a 2-in.-diamcter
pipe thh a mean velocity of 5 ft/ 3. Determine. the value of the
Reynolds number (see Example 1.4).
. ' . = -3 3'
/o. /.77 5g: / Xena E51
e _ m = (m igwmm
/ 8.0x lo" LA:
/66 1. 6 7 For ai
li-li-As shown in Video V1.9, surface tension forces can be strong
enough to allow a double-edge steel razor blade to oat on wa-
ter, but a single-edge blade will sink. Assume that the surface ten- 8 f t . .
sion forces act at an angle 9. relative to the
1-.121 Determine the height water at 60 cF will
rise due to capillary action in a clean iin. -di-
ameter tube. What will be the height if the di-
ameter is reduced to 0 01' m. "
E, = w I cfw_E3 1,22.)
For Mrkr az" oF (74am 735/: 15/ I; prmdrlr 13)
1:85 A gate having the shape shown in Fig. P235 is located .
in the vertical side of an open tank containing water. The gate
is mounted on a horizontal shaft. (3) When the water level ,is at
the top of the gate, determine the magnitude of the uid force
I-_ Open top ~
2J8? Concrete is poured into the forms as shown in Fig. ' 8m "5m aft*1
P2i80to produce a set of steps. Determine the weight of the
sandbag needed to keep the bottomless forms from ingbff- - '
the ground. The weight of the fo'rms is 8
1.25 Water flows from a large drainage pipe at a rate of
1200 galimin. Whal' 18 this volume rate of ow m (a) m /'s (b)
llters/ mm and (c) f/s?
xl' I L3
aC/owrmfe- (00 [ii7i ) ( Eon/[55
= '75? x, /0.-2 1:533
(1.) 5/):( / Mgr = mam 3)
Elevation (ft) Temperature'CF)
5000 50.1 (base)
*2J5 Under normal conditions the temperature or the 2333 55'2
atmosphere decreases with increasing elevation. In some 6400 222
situations, however, a temperature inversion may
1. Bi A layer of water ows down an inclined
xed surface-with the velocity prole shown in
Fig. 131.181 Determine the magnitude and direc-
tion of the shearing stress that the water exerts
on the xed surface for U = 2 m/s and h, =
FIGURE P1. 8]
9157 Determine the. elevation difference, Ah, between the
Water levels in the two open tanks shown in Fig." 132.97. 1-in. diameter 2~in. diameter
2.4-3 . Waller, oil, and an unknown uid are contained in the
vertical tubes shown in Fig. P2;4+8.Determine th
2-"H An invenedoPen tank iahcld in place by a force]? as'
shown in Fig. P2114. the spacic gravity of thc manomcrcr
uid is 2.5. detennine the value of . "
a; 0: -3H) + 3; [24:15 3 : o mete,
4: 5' - r320 (Z-Ft)
(5%) a), I if we,
_ 3H 2.5- , .
5 ' . LLUZ When a uid ows through a sharp bend, low pres .
sures may develop in localized regions of the bend. Estimate
the minimum absolute pressure (in psi) that can develop without i -
causing cavitation if the uid is water at 160 F.
ZESQ. Both ends of the U~tube mercury ma-
nometer of Fig. P152. are initially open to the
atmosphere and under standard atmospheric
pressure. When the valve at the top of the right
leg is open the level of mercury below the valve
is 11,-. After the valve
2:56 Determine- the pmssure of the water in pipe A shown in Fig.
P2456 if the gags pressure of the air in the tank is 2 psi.
i '- djllh: 'miMz +3'wh3 7041'!" a F ' G U Fl E P2515 2.51
2.57 In Fig. P151
(56 = 1.350) and the clo
(SG = 1.15). Determine
_as when the
-ressure in usi, the initial volume, the final voiume. the
atmospheric oressure in -sia. and "the
Dan-Eu Aom ProL/rm L100 4? Included In. The
algal/e lly/e2 j/L'm'j a 745d jafc pram/re of MRI/P515. 1.)?
1.70 7 Often the assumption is made tha