HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING: WONDERS OF THE WORLD, ANCIENT TIMES THROUGH THE RENAISSANCE
"Seven Wonders of the Ancient World"
Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt, 2560 B.C.)
Hanging Gardens of Babylon (modern Iraq, around 600 B.C.)
CATHEDRALS AND CLOCKS
importance religion in medieval life - way of understanding world order. church as political control; support of European culture (Charlemagne converts by force if necessary); & military force (Crusades). guidance & stab
EARLY MODERN EUROPE
1200s economic boom - growth of medieval towns, economic expansion, cathedrals, clocks. 1300s population growth slowing; bad weather, harvest failures, animal epidemics - famine. Provence, France 350,000 population in 1310;
AGE OF EXPLORATION
European naval innovation - science of navigation & development of instruments - improving compass (knowledge transfer from China via Silk Road?)
Remains 1565 Spanish compass;
1711 Portuguese mariner's compass
ROMAN & GREEK ARCHITECTURE The greatest achievements in Roman technology could not have been completed without the amazing advancements the civilization made in the field of architecture. There were three main components to Roman architecture that I
History 284 (A. Bix)
What happens when Civilizations go on Vacation?
Take Home Exam 2
Koushik Chandra 11/14/2007
If a resident of ancient Egypt were magically transported to the world of the Mayan Empire at the peak of its civilization, there woul
The strongest evidence that suggests the water screw was invented in the 7th-century B.C.
is that the King of Assyria, Sennacherib, was given the responsibility to engineer ways to
manage the supply of water throughout his
Out of the reasons that Straus puts forward as to why the Clovis societies in the Americas
could not be descendants of the Solutrean societies in Europe the three most convincing were
chronology, art and ornamentation, and
The types of establishments that produced textiles at the dawn of the Song era (960-1279)
included, 1) peasant households which relied essentially on family labor, 2) large elite
households, rural or urban, in which the mi
Rome glorious empire, 100 million people. Technology & building key significance in governing huge area. After 200 AD, Roman Empire transformed. invasion by Germanic semi-nomadic tribes. political chaos & economic decline. 2
China - one of oldest continuous civilizations still in existence. Flourishing towns 1700 BC Europe disorder; China stable, advanced knowledge. Innovations promoted by well-educated officials large geographic area, great river valleys
Mesopotamia - Tigris & Euphrates "land between two rivers" (part of modern Iraq, Turkey, Syria & Iran). north Akkad; south Sumer, plus Babylonia and Assyria
Sumer - southern Mesopotamia about 4000 BC
PREHISTORIC TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES
Prehistoric period difficult - no specific dates, inventors' names; pace of development uneven across cultures; organic material not usually preserved. But important - huge time period. Evidence from archaeol
Egyptian religion - cyclical travels of sun-god Re;
Osiris murdered & cut to pieces by jealous brother Seth; put together by wife Isis - Osiris reincarnated as god of underworld - cycles.
belief in afterlife; citizens benefit
contact with Sumer - traders & craftsmen Like Sumeria, wealth based on agriculture. Farming 5000 BC. wooden tools rakes, hoes, sickles
plow - one man guided oxen, second pushed plow into soil, third scattered seed, fourth raked. di
2000 BC, small farming villages; development 800 BC. rival city-states - "polis"
ideas & craft knowledge from Egypt, Mesopotamia & Phoenicia (Mediterranean coast) philosophical ideal - search for order & meaning in nature & life n
Romans actively copied Greek culture, but added own perspectives placed within different cultural context & ignored some ideas.
Public buildings monumental symbols greatness of Roman empire Hold it together with machinery for practic
330 AD emperor Constantine moved Roman Empire capital from Rome to Byzantium - 337 renamed Constantinople, now Istanbul. 395 AD Roman Empire officially divided into East & West between emperor's two sons.
Constantine holding model of his
Interregional distribution, defined by Fogel, is the shipments of commodities from the
primary markets of the Midwest to the secondary markets of the East and South (Fogel, p. 170).
The question of whether the long-haul ra