Current reading: Kant, pp. 68-71, with markovits, 78-81
Focus for next time: suicidal man example, p. 71; pp. 97-99.
Next Thursday Writing: 3/30
Next exam: 4/11 (25 pt. exam)
Overview of Kant Material
We will focus primarily on three aspec
Acting from duty and autonomy (as in the miserable man example)Kant reasoning for acting from duty is when we act from duty, we exhibit Good Will. Kant also
believes that when we act from duty, we exhibit the true kind of human freedom. Kant claims
Current reading: Rawls, pp. 178-184 (in reader)
(We are skipping 1 reading on the syllabus, down to IV)
Final Thursday Writing: This Thursday the 20th
Goal for next two weeks: think about social justice from theory and practice perspectives.
1. Primary social goods
- Wealth, income, freedom, and opportunity
2. Rawlss criticism of utilitarianism
- Utilitarianism may require some to be worse-off simply for the sake of the high overall total.
- The wrongness of exploitation and treatment as
Study Questions for Test # 1 Second Chance
1. Define the ethical theory called cultural relativism. What is the cultural
differences argument Rachels discusses for cultural relativism? After
explaining the argument in one paragraph, go on in the next para
Study Questions for Final
1. What is the distinction Kant draws between acting from duty and acting in accord with duty?
Actions done with a good will are done from duty or, because of duty. This contrasts with
actions that are in only
Study Questions for test # 2
1. According to Socrates, he ought to obey the laws of Athens even if he disagrees with
them. What is his argument for this claim?
The Laws characterize their authority over individual citizens to be such that it
Test # 1
1. What is the cultural differences argument Rachels discusses? Explain why this
argument is invalid.
Different cultures have different moral codes Therefore, there is no objective
truth in moralitymoral statements simply
Cultural relativism vs. subjectivism
For cultural relativism, a moral statemetn si
made true or false by what is approved of or
disapproved of by the culture in question
For subjectivism, what makes a moral
statement true or false is the attitude of the
1. What is one reason Crito gives to persuade Socrates to escape from jail?
He tells Socrates that if he (Socrates) dies, Crito will not only lose a friend but will also look to
many people that I have abandoned you.
2. According to Socrates, what is spoi
How does Rachels define cultural relativism?
That there is no such thing as universal truth in ethics, instead there are only
various cultural codes and nothing else. Meaning that our own code has no special status.
Give an example of one w
(1) What does Socrates say his "first accusers" charged him of?
"Socrates is guilty of being a busybody, in that he inquires into what is beneath the earth and in
the sky, turns the weaker argument into the stronger, and teaches others to do the same."
After reading the dialogues of Apology and Crito in The Last Days of Socrates, there are
some unexpected events and conversations that occur. The biggest point that was brought up in
this section of the reading was that Socr
Abortion and Infanticide
After reading the brief paper written by Michael Tooley, Abortion and Infanticide, there
are questions along with answers that could argue those questions. In the introduction paragraph,
Tooley asks two ve
1. According to Wolf, what is a moral saint?
Wolf defines a moral saint as a person whose every action is as morally good as possible, a
person, that is, who is as morally worthy as can be. It is someone who always chooses to act
to improve the welfare of
Reading Quiz 12
What is Audis view regarding child
It is not desirable but economic conditions may necessitate for
children under 15, but if done in a certain way (safe conditions; parttime; supervised recreation; some instruction time) is can be
Study Sheet for Philosophy Test #2
Slides on all these topics should be on Blackboard
Big question on this section: What is it that makes some actions morally right and other
actions morally wrong?
Metaethical Theories: meaning of moral concepts. Truth co
Reading Quiz 11
What is ethos?
The prevailing standards of behavior and values adhered to by a
substantial majority of the group
What is the distinctive of leadership
in ethics as opposed to mere ethical
Leadership in ethics involves going b
The essay by Stump on love will not be included. Note that deontology includes the
essay by McNaughton and Rawling as well as the excerpts by Kant and Ross
discussed in class.
Short Response Questions
1. According to Wolf, what is a moral saint?
- Wolf de
Reading Quiz 10
What attitude should businesses
have toward demonstrative
affiliation in employment?
Mixed bag: most clothing and symbols and some behaviors that
involve must be permitted and others may be permitted on a case-bycase basis, depending on t
ro Subjective theories of well~being
THE TOPIC OF WELL-BEING
Classical hedonistic utilitarianism makes the following claims: that
our fundamental moral obligation is to make the world as good as we
can make it (consequentialism); that th
Chapter 5 Reading
What implication would there be if the natural world
had intrinsic value and not just instrumental value?
We should value it intrinsically and not merely instrumentally.
According to Audi, what is the least controversial way
Chapter 6 Reading
According to Audi, there are five major dimensions of marketing
ethics. Each of these corresponds to a question. Which question most
concerns how the marketed product or service should be represented?
What is deceptive ad
Reading Quiz 9
According to Audi, what is the relationship
between an organizations code of ethics and the
ten ethical principles he presented earlier in the
These principles are a good basis for a code of ethics, but such a code
would need to be m
Reading Quiz 8
Put these different types of affirmative
action strategies in order according to
degrees of strength, from weakest to
Hiring candidates in the preferred group until a certain quota is met, even when there are
applicants from non
Chapter 7 Reading
Which duty is violated by failing to make
important financial information easily accessbile?
Which duty is violated by telling the truth but not the
whole or by failing to provide inform
Study Questions for Midterm-Read Chapter 7, Book I
1. What are the advantages of a liberal arts education, according to Nussbaum?
Critical thinking and understand other cultures.
2. What does the Allegory of the cave tell us about Platos view of