ENGL 342 Notes for the first week
1. Background of Old English
a) 4 dialects
Northumbrian (c. 500-800 CE)
With Northumbrian, comprises Anglian, which develops into Modern English.
West Saxon (c. 750-1050): dialect of most texts.
ENGL 342 Notes for the second week
1. Overview of Old English Grammar
Medieval idea of grammar quite well developed: wordplay, metaphors and puns in literature.
Medieval education consisted of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic) and
A. Review of test 1
One tricky question: #1.a, wherein the gender was unknown.
Ambiguity in 2.b: could be referring to either the woman alone or to her
and the five men.
3.a: hie cannot be the f
11 Intro to Verbs
A. Strong verbs
Change stem vowel in the past tense
Seven classes (dont need to memorise for this course)
o Gradation series in handout on strong verb classes.
Still exist today: sing/sang/su
12. Review II
The nominative and accusative of strong nouns tends to be the same.
o eg. eorl/eorl/eorles/eorle (present)
With strong neuter nouns that are monosyllabic and have a long
13 Weak Verbs
The main difference for weak verbs is in the inflectional endings of 2nd
and 3rd person.
Class I ends in (ri)an
o Double consonant
In second and third person singular, the double consonant
becomes a singular one.
fremman: ic fremme, fremes
Lecture 15 Modal Verbs and Adjectives
A. Modal Verbs
Most modal verbs fall under the category of preterite present verbs.
Unlike most verbs, 2nd person singular present is not different from 1st and
Lecture 5 Pronouns
A. Personal pronouns
Lecture 8 Review
Little new material was introduced before the quiz today. Instead, the professor
went over topics already covered, stressing a few key points listed below.
o Emphasis on what
Lecture 7 Verbs
A. General notes about verbs
Two tenses: present and past
o Usually the present tense is used to indicate the future, with a time
marker (eg. tomorrow I go).
o The preterite includes all past