Human Evolution Midterm Review
The March of Progress
Early mantimelife book
o Popular books and magazine subscriptions
Pyramid of evolution
o More evolved in the center
LECTURES 3 & 4:
Mechanisms of Evolution
Gregor MENDEL - 1865 - Publishes Experiments
in Plant Hybridization describing his particulate
theory of inheritance.
This is the foundation of modern genetics.
Was ignored for 35 y
LECTURE 18: Early Hominin
*The Question: How and when did early
hominins develop an adaptation that was
different from apes?
The significant anatomical differences between
hominins & apes by 1.8 MYBP imply important
LECTURE 20: Archaic Homo
sapiens incl. Neanderthal
Lab Quiz NEXT WEEK
(April 1 4)
LAB REVIEW SESSIONS
All sessions will be in Leacock 720. The
dates and times are as follows:
Tuesday March 25th, 11:30AM to 1:00PM
Tuesday March 25th, 3:30 to 5:00 PM
LECTURE 10: Chimpanzee
Because Chimpanzees are our closest living relative
(share over 99% of our DNA), they MAY be the best
analogs for the behavior of our last common ancestor
Darwin wrote The Expression of the Emotions in Man
LECTURE 8: Primate Behavior
People interested in human evolution use comparative
studies of African monkeys and apes in order to reconstruct
pre-cultural behavior in the human line.
1. Common features in primate behavior MAY have also
Lecture 7: The Order Primates
Classification of Living Primates
PROSIMIANS - Most primitive (i.e. most similar to the
ancestral form) of the primates. NOT true monkeys.
Most prosimian species occur on Madagascar.
Differences between p
LECTURE 9: Primate Behavior
Anubis Baboons Revisited
the Washburn & DeVore model, the female role
was primarily nurturing. Females did not need
male political skills because only males competed
The problem with this appro
Metho ds of Paleontology & Dating
The 4 basic steps of Paleontological Research are:
Discovery: Fieldwork to find and convserve fossils.
Description: Complete and accurate. Allows for comparisons to
known sp ecies.
Classification: Idintify the fossi
Mechanism of Evolution
A trait is any physical characteristic of an organism.
All these traits are dictated by the genes.
A section of the gene resp onsible for deciding a trait is called an allele
(e.g. Eye Colour = allele, Blue Eyes = trait).
Development of Evolutionary Theory
Before evolution, humans were seperate from the animal world.
Church was in charge.
Linnaeus sets out to classify animals and plants in the 18th century.
He puts humans in the primates order. His motivations are ent
Archaic Homo sapiens & Neanderthal
first Homo sapien fossils date to 400,000 - 200,000 BP.
They are very muscular, with lots of inter-sp ecies variability.
Some individuals retain Homo erectus features (low forehead, elongated
skull, large flat nuch
Various species of Homo Erectus/Ergaster were found in Java and in
Zhoukoudian Cave (in China).
To day they are named by region:
African Specimens = Homo ergaster
East Asian Specimens = Homo erectus
European Specimens = Homo
Early Hominin Phylogeny and Behaviour
It is possible that hominins could have undergone adaptive radiation
into many new species (Goulds Idea ).
There are at least two lines, the Robust vegetarian lineage and the
Gracile ominorous lineage.
LECTURE 17: Early Hominin
*Lumpers vs. Splitters Debate
*Splitters emphasize Goulds idea that as a new
ecological niche appears, adaptive radiation will
create many new but closely related species.
*So, in the case of hominins, the creation of
LECTURE 12: Miocene Apes
Although the earliest recognizable ancestors of the
apes appear about 27 MYBP in the Late
Oligocene, apes become very common during the
MIOCENE (23 to 5.3 MYBP)
*Apes are MORE common and diverse than
Prof. M. Bisson
Office: Leacock 723
Phone: (514) 398-4287
Office Hours: M. & W. 9:30-10:30 or by appointment
(Drop in any time between 9:30 AM and 4:30 PM, 5 days
a week. KNOCK, the door is always
Prehistoric Archaeology Mock Exam Answers
1) Describe and Explain human behavior through under understanding the
variability of cultures.
2) Culture is the adaptive learned behaviors of members of society that is passed
on through language. Material cultu
Professor M.S. Bisson
Office Hours: M, F 2:00-3:00 PM or by appointment
Fall Term 2011
This course will provide an introductio
Prehistoric Archaeology Mock Exam 2010
Questions from Lectures 3-28
1) What are the two main goals of anthropology?
2) Define culture. What is material culture?
3) Leslie White developed the idea of cultures as adaptive systems. List his four
Introduction to Evolution Midterm Review Sheet
Progressivism: The idea that the betterment of society is possible through the
advancement of knowledge and industrial capacity. Social development is both
linear and progressive. Inf
Introduction to Evolution Midterm Review Sheet
Lewis Henry Morgan:
Great Exhibition of 1851:
Evolution and the Natural Sciences
General trajectory of Western thought on our biological origins:
LECTURE 21: Anatomically
modern Homo sapiens
The LAB QUIZ will take place during
regular lab times during APRIL 1
You MUST take the quiz during the
time slot you are enrolled in.
REVIEW SESSIONS: (This Week)
Thursday: 2:00 - 3:30 PM
Friday: 10 11:30
LECTURES 5 & 6: Methods of
Paleontology & Dating
Paleontological research proceeds in 4 basic steps
that begin with empirical data collection and
description and end with interpretations (i.e.
1. Discovery - fieldwork to f
A. afarensis to Homo habilis
* Laetolil (Tanzania)
3.6 MYBP trackway. Footprints of 4 individuals.
Evidence of modern-style striding bipedalism.
Also some jaws & teeth youll see in lab
LECTURE 13: Ape Retrospective
Early to Middle Miocene apes were plentiful and
adapted to both life in the trees and on the ground.
Apes were more common than monkeys.
AFTER the Upper Miocene fossil gap, monkeys are
common and apes are rare. What happened?
LECTURE 11: Early Primate
Ancestors of MAMMALS appeared in the early
Triassic, about the same time as dinosaur
ancestors, but were suppressed by the reptiles.
Early mammals were restricted to small body size
and arboreal or nocturnal ecological
Filling the Dating Gap
A major problem in understanding human evolution during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene
is that there is a dating gap between the effective ranges of Potassium/Argon (which is not
accurate for materials less than 500,000 years ol