addition of timber(sound color)- specify instrument (as Monteverdi)- and
much smaller than now.
bowed strings normally (core of orchestra)+ maybe harpsichord or organ
Score: full score = all line together, usually used by con
EXOTICISM IN PARIS circa 1900
Artistic style and movement that imitated and emulated the artworks of various non-European
culturesparticularly those considered to be in a lesser stage of cultural developmentin an
attempt to express less refin
MUSIC EX: The prime form of the row in the first melody of the trio in the minuet
The Four Forms (Permutations) of the Tone Row
Prime Form = original form of the row (basis for the other three forms)
Retrograde = simply the original (prime) fo
Like many other composers, Stravinsky experimented with neoclassicism in his works
after approximately 1920.
Neoclassicism was a reaction against late romanticism and impressionism. Neoclassic
looked back to and consciousl
THE CONCEPT OF KEY
collection of pitches organized around a central pitch TONIC
A key is a hierarchical network of interval relationships in which certain pitches
are emphasized more to create a sense of motion (toward or away from stability)
museumsyndicate.com Gaugiun collection:
The religious icons and idols of South Pacific culture appear in many his paintings
sculpture-like figures with a powerful, brooding presence. Other
Collection of 3 or more pitches played simultaneously.
A tonic (chord) triad = the 3-note chord contains tonic, 3rd and 5th (dominant)
pitches of any major scale (major or minor).
The tonic chord also known as a I chord
Dominant chord = 3-no
Cultural movement emphasizing emotion, imagination, individualism
Focus on the irrational, emotional, the world of dreams and horror.
Against the balance and restraint of Classical art and music
NATURE as a
ORCHESTRAS circa 1750 to 1800 based around a core of bowed strings usually
played at least four separate parts.
larger than the baroque orchestra
typical classical orchestra smaller than those that in 19th century.
Romantic orchestra ar
monody: solo vocal melody + instrumental acc.
homophonic texture: melody+acc. characteristic = clear baseline.
baroque polyphony: imitative, upper part performed over a basso continuo, which = a dynamic mixture of
polyphony and homophony.
Mozart 12 Variations on Twinkle, twinkle little star (C-major) - theme and variations
form. - you hear in the theme, which is followed by twelve variations on that theme
The PIANO (1700) is a keyboard instrument originally called a FORTEPIANO
FRANZ JOSEPH PAPA HAYDN
soprano, freelance musician with no patron
entered the service Esterhzy family (powerful of the Hungarian royal families)
became Kapellmeister in the palace of Esterhza for the princely worship
MUSIC OF THE 20th & 21st CENTURIES
General characteristics of art music in the past century (or so)
Often marked by great individuality of expression and technical approach,
resulting in a great diversity of concurrent styles and paths of exploration, s
CLASSICAL PERIOD: 1750-1820
The Age of Enlightenment
The cultural movement : Enlightenment
rising faith in and advocacy of scientific inquiry and social equality
Industrial Revolution i
1. I never went to a concert like this before. I really enjoyed this experience and I liked
this gender of music. People not in music major rarely listen to those nowadays.
Therefore, it was a good way to get out of the world around us as a stude
MUAR 211Art of Listening
Art of Listening: Instructions for Concert Report #2
due Friday, November 14th
ASSIGNMENT GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
Go to yet another live concert of Western classical art music. Ideally, your second required
concert should contrast in
Music as a construct : music puted together wich has a deeper unity
Style of art, music and theater, primarily popular in Germany and Scandinavia between 1880
Often (not always) stresses intense, subjective emotion, isolation, madne
Schoenberg abandoned tonality altogether around 1908, composing the first works of
atonal music, in the forms and genres of art songs, string quartets, and orchestral
His music was strongly rejected by many of his contemporaries; disruptive a
12-TONE MUSIC (SERIAL MUSIC or SERIALISM)
1922 Schoenberg announced his invention of twelve-tone composition
The problem of free atonal music: how does a composer create coherent musical
forms without using key areas (i.e., the major and minor keys used i
Work at court, where he wrote the most famous work : THE BRANDENBURG
CONCERTOS (6 in number, 5 have 3 move)
WELL TEMPERED CLAVIER
Collection of solo keyboard music
One of the most influencial works in the history of western classi
ORCHESTAL SUITE (sometimes called DANCE SUITE or BAROQUE DANCE
- Multi-movement instrumental work for orchestra alone (in baroque also w/
- Non standardized number of move
- The individual movements = evocative of DANCE TYPES
No imitative polyphony
accompanied solo song
large scale cooperative effort btw composers, performers and designers, etc.
Text = libretto. Composed almost always by literary and poets and not the
A collection of Lieder (art songs) that are published as a set AND share unifying
Not every collection of art songs is a cycle.
Shared musical characteristics:
A related pattern of keys between the songs
reappearance of musical
VIRTUOSI OF THE SALON AND CONCERT HALL
CHARACTER PIECE (new genre)
Gorgeous, one-movement miniatures for solo piano.
Evokes a mood. Elegant, graceful, melodic, LYRICAL, and often in simple forms
Fanciful titles, can suggest dance or only suggest a mood or
Romantic French and Italian Opera
opera seria (Italian) & grand opera (of French origin) = genres of serious opera
opera buffa (Italian) & opra comique (French) = genres of comic opera
Only French opra comique used spoken dialogue; the other
Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, scene, or anything
Usually specified by descriptive title/explanatory notes given to audience during
Instrumental music NOT intended to portra
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WAGNER'S MUSIC DRAMA
LIBRETTOS were drawn from medieval German epics and Norse mythology; the
supernatural; glorified the German land and its people; intended to function as
allegories that resonated deep within the psyche of th
Caricature of Mahlers Modern Orchestra:
Richard Strauss contemporary of Mahlers, and was also even
Vienna Opera director for a period of time. He and Mahler are often
compared because they were friends and their music has both interestin
GUSTAV MAHLER (1860-1911)
I am thrice homeless: as a Bohemian in Austria, as an Austrian in Germany,
and as a Jew throughout the world.
Composer acted as bridge btw 19th-century Austro-German tradition and
modernism early 20th Stylistic