What is cognition?
Not easy to give a precise definition of cognition, cognition means different things to different people
Solution: examine ways in which cognition is used in everyday life
Folk-Psychology: A set of assumptions a
What is Cognition
Cognition has no precise definition
o action and faculty of knowing
its about the processes + the different divisions of our mind
Folk psychology= a set of assumptions and theories based on everyday
CHAPTER 10: PROBLEM-SOLVING
10.1 Insight Problems and the Gestalt Theory of Thinking
Gestalt: Form or configuration.
o Consciousness doesnt consist of one event after another but tends to be organized
into a coherent whole, or Gestalt.
CHAPTER 3: PERCEPTION
Illusion of clarity an example:
o A grid placed over a blocky image makes the image appear clearer than the same
image without the grid. But a grid placed on a high-resolution image decreases
Final Exam Review Session
Multiple Choice Questions
A person intends to call the number 514394-1965. But they end up calling 514394-61965. Note that the number (i.e., 6)
is duplicated. What kind of error has
Department of Psychology
Psychology 213 Cognition
Winter Semester, 2016
Professor Signy Sheldon
Professor Signy Sheldon
Stewart Biology Building N7/2
Critical thinking, rational thinking, reasoning
Reasoning: process of reaching conclusion from premsis
premisL: propusition r statement
theses proper may lead to conclusion
diff premises & conclusion
combo of prem + conclu lead to argument
What is imagery?
-Can be referred to as mental images, but mental images does NOT always have to be
visual imagery, it can be auditory imagery.
Paivios Dual-coding Theory
- theory that, that there are two ways of representing events (ver
Applied cognitive psychology
Central concern of applied cognitive psychology: discover ways to the tendency we all have to make errors in
Activation-trigger-schema theory: There can be several schemas for differe
Intelligence and creativity
The concept of intelligence: historical background
The Simon-Binet test
Intelligence test of today similar + to that of Binet.
French educational authorities wanted to develop a test to measure the extent to which
Marriage of cognitive psychology and neuroscience
Goal= discover the brain mechanisms that give rise to human mental functions
Important to assume the fact that the mind is composed of specific parts
Modules: The sectio
Visual agnosia: a deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despite being able to see
no sensory impairment, but cant cognitively interpret visual information
visual recognition not always completely impaired
The varieties of attention
Jamess description of attention
William James: leading American psychologist 20th cent.
most famous passage concerning attention (see p.86)
Harold Paschler (1998): no one knows what attention is, there may even be n
Memory traces and memory schemas
Schema theories of memories
Memory traces often conceived of as replicas of previous experiences.
Recording device: works as long as the recall of previous experiences is accurate.
Mystic writing pad: a model o
Memory and imagery
Paivos dual-coding theory
Images are a subjective phenomenon
Image defined as the ease with which something elicits a mental image (mental picture or sound)
Dual-coding theory: The theory that verbal and non-verbal sys
The structure of language
Tree diagrams: A description of a process that proceeds from one level at which a number of relationships are
simultaneously present to other levels at which these relationships are serially ordered.
Insight problems and the Gestalt theory of thinking
Consciousness is not only one event after another; it tends to be organized into a coherent whole.
Gestalt switch: A sudden change in the way information is organized.
Reasoning, judgement and choice
Reasoning: thought process that yields a conclusion from premises (percepts, thoughts, assertions).
Syllogistic reasoning: a syllogism consists of 2 premises and a conclusion. Each
-the act of thinking, acquiring knowledge
-understand how we percieve, learn, remember and solve problems
-how diseases work, how they affect mental functions and daily life
example: clive wearing (short memory) amnesia