Structure and Function
Bacterial vs. Eukaryotic Cell
Growing bacteria: is done on a solid medium (petri dish or agar plate), which forms a type of
nutritious goo and you can gr
THINGS TO REMEMBER LSCI230 FINAL EXAM
Lecture 15: Microbiology of Water
1. Aquatic systems: activity of aquatic systems depend on the activity of PRIMARY
2. Primary producers: such as oxygenic photoautotrophs (algae, cyanobacteria), phytoplankt
Midterm #2: THINGS TO REMEMBER
Lecture #8: Microbial Growth
1. Macronutrients: nutrients that are needed in large amounts. These are: carbon from CO2 or
organic compounds, nitrogen from NH3, N2 or NO3- and organic compounds (amino acids),
Lecture 9-10: Control of Microorganisms
Sterilization: the killing or removal of all viable organisms (including endospores)
o All or nothing situation, either it is completely sterile or not.
Inhibition: effectively limiti
Lecture 5: Metabolism and Energetics
Metabolism and Energetics
All cells have genetic functions where they have
replication of their DNA, transcription and translation
All cells have catalytic function to make enzymatic
reactions for two purposes:
Lecture 12: Taxonomy of Eukaryotes (8)
Phylogeny of the Eukarya
Sequencing of 18S rRNA genes is used to infer the phylogeny of eukaryotes.
o Same thing as was done for the 16s rRNA in prokaryotes.
o Relationship between 18S rRNA genes is weaker f
Lecture 17: Pathogens
Infectious diseases have been a major cause of mortality and
morbidity throughout history.
Microorganisms capable of causing disease (damage to the
Different species have different virulence properties
Lecture 6-7: Metabolic Diversity
Where do electrons and carbon come from?
The electron for NADNADH is coming
The carbon for the anabolic reaction is
also coming from glucose
The carbon and the glucose are
Lecture 8: Microbial Growth (5)
Metabolism of most nutrients (N, S and P) is relatively simple; slight modifications are needed
before incorporation into cellular material.
In contrast, sources of carbon and energy usually undergo many
THINGS TO REMEMBER MIDTERM #1 LSCI230
Lecture 2: Structure and Function
1. Colonies: bunch of microorganisms living together and they can live at a high density because
the medium is very nutritious
2. Surface volume ratio: there is a limit to how small t
Lecture 15: Microbiology of Water (11)
The biological activity of an aquatic ecosystem depends, ultimately, on the activities of the primary
producers (oxygenic photoautotrophs, phytoplankton; phytoplankton plant):
Lecture 16: Microbiology of Animals
Commensals (resident): microorganisms routinely
found on the bodies of most healthy individuals.
Commensals normally colonize the body without
causing an infection.
o Skin: 1012
o Mouth: 1010
Lecture 13: Taxonomy of Viruses (9)
Viruses are grouped into families
o Based on their mode of replication
o End in -viridae
o Ex.: Retroviridae
Viruses are given a genus name
o End in -virus
o Ex.: Lentivirus
Viruses are give
Lecture 18: Food Microbiology
Fermented Food Products
Many of the food and beverages that we consume are products of microbial action on raw
material: sauerkraut, pickles, salami, cheeses, yogurt, alcoholic beverages.
Microorganisms that are the
Lecture 14: Microbiology of Soil (10)
Microbiology of Soil
The loose outer material of Earths surface, distinct from bedrock.
Soil can be divided into two broad groups:
Mineral soils: derived from rock weathering and other inorg
The Invention of the Microscope
The science of microbiology did not exist before the invention of microscopes at the
beginning of the 17c.
Lecture 11: Taxonomy of Bacteria Part 1 and 2
Taxonomy Part 1
Three Major Categories of Taxonomy
1. Taxonomy Nomenclature
Binomial system developed by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is used to name a
Lecture 19: Industrial Microbiology
Industrial use of microorganisms to produce useful compounds.
Primary metabolites are produced during exponential phase:
Secondary metabolites are produced at the end of growth,
Organic chemical Organic
D = 10 um (2-100
100 nm (<1 um)
Haploid (one copy of the
Haploid (one copy of the
copies of the
Single stranded or double
Mode of Action
Buffer Problem Set I
What is a buffer? Explain how the following solutes function as buffers:
(a) NaCHO2 and HCHO2
(b) C5H5N and C5H5NHCl
What ratio of lactic acid to sodium lactate is required to give a solution having a pH
Introduction to Food Science
BASIC CHILL ROOM -2 TO 16oC
- GIVES PRODUCT SHELF LIFE
AN EXTENSION OF DAYS
REDUCES RATE OF
REACTIONS AND S
Exam on Monday will include 30 multiple choice questions.
Kornberg came to conclusion that DNA polymerase I cannot be the only DNA polymerase. They mutated the DNA polymerase I
and expected the DNA replication to stop. However, they did not find
Experiment in the late 20s proved that nucleic acid good for storage and transfer of genetic material. It mediates storage and
transfer of genetic material.
a. The discovery of the Transforming Principle:When the scientists proposed the transform
Metabolism and bioenergetics
Professor Armando Jardim
Parasitology building room B1.14 Office Hours Monday and Friday 3-4pm
Advice 15 minutes of biochemistry every day! General rule, if he talked about it in class we are
responsible if he did not we are n
Biochemistry is the study of biomolecules. Water has interactive forces and act as a buffer. It is
nearly essential in all reactions. Amino acids form protein. Amino acids and amide bond are very
interesting because they can do anything wi
Example of application of biochemistry (Not on the exam)
Nanobots: Considered as some of the building blocks which will have a considerable impact on nanotechnology, for innovation.
Will be used to repair space satellite and kill bad blood cancer one day.
Trans fat are not good for you and can be metabolized but it takes longer and accumulate
Sphingolipids are exciting lipids and if there is any area of lipids which would have a major
breakthrough in the future, that would be sphingol