Psychologists study a wide range of topics, such
as language development in children and the
effects of sensory deprivation on behavior. They
use scientically testable models and methods to
conduct their research.
Scientists use the following terms to des
Overview of Research Methods
Yields a lot of information
Provides a good way to generate
Can provide information about
many people since its cheap and
easy to do
In a case study, a researcher studies a subject in depth. The researcher
collects data about the subject through interviews, direct observation,
psychological testing, or examination of documents and records about the
In the past, researchers performed all kinds of
questionable experiments in the name of science.
For example, in one famous experiment,
psychologist Stanley Milgram led his subjects to
believe that they were giving painful electric
shocks to other people.
Experimental and Control Groups
Typically, a researcher conducting an experiment divides subjects into an
experimental group and a control group. The subjects in both groups
receive the same treatment, with one important difference: the researcher
Measuring Central Tendency
Researchers summarize their data by calculating measures of central tendency, such as the
mean, the median, and the mode. The most commonly used measure of central tendency is the
mean, which is the arithmetic average of the sco
Psychologists use many different methods for conducting research. Each
method has advantages and disadvantages that make it suitable for certain
situations and unsuitable for others.
Case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, and laboratory observat
After psychologists develop a theory, form a hypothesis, make
observations, and collect data, they end up with a lot of information,
usually in the form of numerical data. The term statistics refers to the
analysis and interpretation of this numerical dat
Researchers make observations in order to describe and measure behavior.
After observing certain events repeatedly, researchers come up with a
theory that explains these observations. A theory is an explanation that
organizes separate pieces of informatio
A Good Theory
A good theory must do two things: organize
many observations in a logical way and allow
researchers to come up with clear predictions to
check the theory.
Research Must Be Falsiable
A good theory or hypothesis also must be
falsiable, which m