Likely the most inuential writer in all of English literature and certainly the most important
playwright of the English Renaissance, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in the town of
Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, England. The son of a successful
what is motivation
forces within the individual that account for the direction,
level, and persistence of a persons effort expended at work
an individuals choice when presented with a number of
Being responsible for one's own work and answering for
the repercussions of one's own actions.
Adjustment to extant conditions; modification of some
thing or its parts that makes it more fit for existence under
Attempts by two or more individuals or organizations to
acquire the same goods, services, or productive and
financial resources. Consumers compete with other
consumers for goods or services. Producers compete with
other producers for sales to
employee involvement team is meet regular
to collective examine important workplace issues
quality circles are meet
periodically to discuss and make proposal ways to improve
the functional silo problem is
when members of functional uni
the maintenance contribution consists of
encouraging others, reconciling differences expressing
standards, offering agreement, inviting participation
Some disruptive behaviors to team building are
bullying, withdrawing, group as a form of self confe
Three skills managers use
Conceptual Skills, Human Skills, Technical Skills
the ability to think analytically and achieve integrative
the ability to work well in cooperation with other persons;
person who supports and is responsible for the work of
First Line Managers
supervise people who perform non managerial duties
Oversee the work of large departments or divisions
guide the perfor
A legal form of business owned by the people who use its
services or by the people who work there
A legal entity owned by shareholders whose liability for the
firm's losses is limited to the value of the stock they own
is the degree to which the people affected by a decision are
treated with dignity and respect
moderate challenging goals
are morel likely to lead to higher performance than less
are more likely
Differences Among Emotions
The release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine accompanies many emotional states,
but emotions differ at the biological level:
Different emotions have different patterns of brain activation.
emotion is a complex, subjective experience accompanied by biological and behavioral changes.
Emotion involves feeling, thinking, activation of the nervous system, physiological changes, and
behavioral changes such as facial expressions.
Schachter and Singers Two-Factor Theory
In the 1960s, Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed a different theory to explain emotion.
They said that peoples experience of emotion depends on two factors: physiological arousal and
the cognitive interpre
1. What are some features of good scientic research?
Good scientic research must have precise hypotheses, replicability, falsiable theories and
hypotheses, and parsimonious explanations.
2. What is sampling bias?
Sampling bias is a type of error that occu
Researchers use the terms variable, subject, sample, and population
when describing their research.
Psychologists do research to measure and describe behavior; to
understand when, why, and how events occur; and to apply knowledge
Emotion and Culture
People in different cultures can identify six basic emotions.
There are universal physiological indicators of emotion.
People in different cultures categorize emotions differently.
Different cultures consider different emotions to be p
Happiness is a basic human emotion, but people often make
assumptions about happiness that empirical research does not support. For
example, people often assume that most people feel unhappy and
dissatised with their lives, but research shows this is not
Some aspects of emotion are universal to all cultures, while other aspects differ across
Similarities Among Cultures
Ekman and his colleagues have found that people in different cultures can identify the six
basic emotions: happiness, sadness, a
1. Which one of the following is not one of the six universally recognizable, basic emotions described by Ekman and his
2. Polygraphs detect which of the following?
(A) Hormone changes
scientific management sought to
create a management and organizational practices that
would increase peoples efficiency at work
job simplification is
the approach to job design that standardizes work
procedures and employs peoples efficiency at work