fatigue, conditions of anosmia, colds/clogging of nasal passages, and during times
they are asleep or immediately after awakening, etc. It is a backup warning system
for persons who are not adequately sensitive to smell of the odorant due to one or
have limitations, as does the recipient of this warning. Under conditions of an
explosion, the warning odorant should behave like a fire alarm and drive the person
with a normal sense of smell from the space. Even when effective, the odorants do
welders is still very important.
PROTECTION AGAINST OPTICAL RADIATION
The general rule of protection against overexposure to optical radiation is a
combination of three preventive measures (Wolska, Dybczyski, 2010):
time of exposure should be minimized
EN 458:2004. Hearing protectors Recommendations for selection, use, care and
maintenance Guidance document.
Hamernik R. P. and Hsueh, K. D. (1991) Impulse noise: Some definitions, physical
acoustics and other considerations, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, pp. 18
Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths between
180 nm and 400 nm (incoherent optical radiation) (2004) International
Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Health Physics,
vol. 87(2), s. 171-186.
animals, in a wall or crawl space.) Brochures may warn consumers to remove any
odoriferous material, such as household chemicals, from the vicinity of appliances.
This conjures up images of cluttered basements, not of homes built on slabs, where
PROTECTION OF WORKERS EXPOSED TO
Since optical radiation can cause adverse effects on the health and many workers
are exposed to optical radiation during performing their work tasks, i
photosensitizers. The risk assessment should also give particular attention on any
possible effects on workers health resulting from workplace interactions between
optical radiation and photosensitizing chemical substances. Such chemical
First presented are the requirements referring to general assessment of noise,
including those set by the European Council Directive 2003/10/EC. In following
sections discussed are specific issues concerning the effect of impulse noise on
all). The failure to relate the odor to gas again provided a sober result.
Performance did not differ between those who did and those who did not have gas
service. As expected from much other research, performance deteriorated
progressively with age after
assessment must be done by competent personnel.
Wolska A., Dybczyski W. (2010). Non-coherent optical radiation, in Handbook
of Occupational Safety and Health, D. Koradecka ed, CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Directive 2006/25/EC of the European
protectors available to the workers. When noise exposure equals or exceeds the
upper exposure action value, individual hearing protectors must be worn, and such
conditions have to be indicated by special warning signs.
Directive 2003/10/EC defines three p
the gas odor!)
So, at best, only large utilities that supply natural gas may have any data
about how often the odor of gas has actually aborted an accident. Whether they
share the information is another matter. Unfortunately, what serves to avert a
spectral weighting function specified for particular biological response (like: actinic
action spectra for UV, photochemical retinal hazard, retinal thermal hazard). It is
meant that limiting the occupational exposure to UVR for artificial sources in the
Two questions immediately come to mind: 1) Does the odorant-gas
mixture behave physically and chemically as designed? 2) Do more than a
vanishingly small number of people have enough impairment of the sense of smell
to fail to perceive the threat of escap
it. (No records have ever been produced by the Defendant confirming the mailing
of any such materials.)
The only printed warning information relevant to this case were on invoices that
Jack Simpson received to pay the bills. On the b
Measurements of impulse noise are difficult to perform in industrial environment as
impulse and continuous noise usually occur simultaneously, therefore the effects of
both types of noise on hearing should be considered together. For thi
regular basis, about every month, but less frequently in the summer compared to the
winter. The Simpsons never had a problem with propane before this event. Mary
Lee reports that she did not smell gas before the explosion. She knows what
it is necessary to evaluate the effect of different local illumination and work-rest
schedule on inspectors visual fatigue and task performance.
A total of nine well-trained female operators who worked in a TFT-LCD plant
participated in th
Figure 1. Percent of people (n=720) who related a patch
containing the odorant BP-Captan to gas.
solutions come forward. One development of considerable recent interest is the
presence of methane/propane detectors on the shelves of retail stores. Alth
value for this quantity is reached earlier (for lower noise levels) than the impulse
daily noise exposure level LEX,8h.
The differences in the effects of continuous and impulse noise on hearing led to the
development of a number of impulse noise heari
called A-type impulse or a Friedlander wave (Hamernik nad Hsueh, 1991), has been
described in a detailed mathematical model. It is assumed that both the duration of
increased pressure and the peak pressure value contribute to the hearing damage.
perception of indoor air quality. Indoor Air, 8, 8090.
Gilbert, A. N., & Wysocki, C. J. (1987). The smell survey results. National Geographic, 122,
Gunnarsen, L. & Fanger, P.O. (1992). Adaptation to indoor air pollution, Environment
exceeded, the risk is assessed and high and suitable protective measures must be
applied in order to reduce exposure to a safe level.
Criteria and exposure limit values for non-coherent optical radiation are the same as
these recommended by ICNIRP. The se
IR 19 (single) - 22.7 1987
VIS 10,080 (total) 10,8
IR 35 (single) - 191 1251
Comparison of results for electric and gas welding indicates that much higher
hazard arising fro
undetectable at nose level. Basements often have windows at head height and the
air infiltration they provide might fail to vent the gas.
- In some cases, floors may have areas (e.g., step-down alcoves) that
could serve for local collection of vapor, so t
a rural area would relate ethyl mercaptan to gas in various attentional states. The
investigators had participants visit a normally decorated house trailer that
contained ethyl mercaptan at levels as high as 250-fold above the average
threshold. When they
ethyl-mercaptan odorant added to the gas to provide an olfactory cue, and (b)
printed safety information. To be effective as a warning, the odorant must first be
detected by the olfactory receptors before it can alert users to the presence of
sounds on hearing. Decades of research have demonstrated that the assessment of
noise exposure with the use of A-weighting in the frequency domain well agrees
with the data on hearing damage risk caused by noise. For continuous noise, a time
manufacturers, such as those who make control-valves, appliances, and
appurtenances have improved design of ignition and delivery, but gas will still
escape some of the time. No one dictates to a company how it must communicate
warnings. Some show a gun-s