1st law of thermodynamics: The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can
be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
2nd law of thermodynamics: The principle whereby every energy transfer or
Chapter 15 part 1
Each Supreme Court justice is assigned _ clerk(s).
Aside from the justices themselves, who or what has the greatest power in shaping the
flow of cases to the Supreme Court?
a) the attorney genera
Chapter 15 part 2
If an individual is arrested because their home was searched by police without a legal
warrant, they could argue in court that they had been denied
a) a writ of habeas corpus.
b) their Miranda rights.
c) a writ of certiorari.
Chapter 15 part 3
Under normal rules of oral argument, each lawyer has _ to present his or her case
before the Supreme Court.
a) thirty minutes
b) an hour
c) ninety minutes
d) two hours
e) unlimited time
In which type of case does the Supreme Court have o
Chapter 15 part 4
When justices agree with the ruling of a court majority but not all of its reasoning, they
may often write a(n)
c) ex parte.
writ of certiori.
A person, agency, or interest group not directly a par
The IranIraq War depleted Iraq's foreign exports, oil, and destroyed the economy
by presenting it with a foreign debt of an immense 100 billion (in U.S dollars). Prior to
the war with Iran, Iraq had a dazzling economy, very dependent on
Autotroph - organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from
the environment instead of consuming other organisms
Photosynthesis - the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight,
Iraq currently has a total population of about 28,945,569 and is the 40th most
populated country in the world, with a population growth rate of 2.506%. Baghdad, the
capital city, consists of the highest population out of all the cities. The dem
Ap psychology vocab 3
descriptive statistics - general set of procedures used to summarize, condense, and
describe sets of data
frequency distribution - a chart or array of scores, usually arranged from highest to
lowest, showing the number of instances f
1. Afterbirth: When the placenta rips away from the uterus wall and passes out through the
vagina after the baby has been born.
2. Amnion: It is a fluid that surrounds the embryo to support and protect it.
3. Cervix: The neck of the womb that leads to the
Spermatozoa: Male gametes also called sperm.
Testes: Where the sperm is made in males.
Tubules: The tiny tubes where sperm are made. These are located in the testes
Umbilical Cord: Joins the embryo (baby) to the placenta
Cryptic coloration: Camouflage that makes prey difficult to spot
Aposematic coloration: Bright, warning coloration exhibited by
animals with effective chemical or physical defenses
Batesian mimicry: a harmless species looks like a spe
Community: A group of populations of different species living close
enough to interact
Interspecific interactions: A relationship between individuals of two
or more species in a community; include competition, predation,
Cellular Respiration - process by which cells obtain energy from carbohydrates;
atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
Glycolysis- the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid, which makes a small
amount of energy
Ecological succession: Transition in the species composition of a
community following a disturbance. The disturbed area may be
colonized by a variety of species, which are gradually replaced by
other species, which are in turn replaced by still other spe
Cell A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life
Cell Membrane The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell
Cell Theory This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit
Ap bio quiz answers
Carotenoid: a class of pigments that are present in the thylakoid membrane of plants and
that aid in photosynthesis
Photosystems: in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and
other pigment molecules that har
AP psychology vocab 5
Psychoanalytic - perspective developed by freud, which assumes that psychological
problems are the result of anxiety resulting from unresolved conflicts and forces of which
a person might be unaware
Gestalt psychology - school of psy
Psychology - the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior - an observable action
Monism - seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
Dualism - seeing mind and body as two different things that interact
Ap psychology vocab 2
Sample - a group of participants who are assumed to be representative of the population
about which an inference is being made
random sample - selection of a part of the population without reason; participation is by
Albany Plan of Union: plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed
to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was
turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Alexander Hamilton: Delegate to the Constitut
Apush review 2
Bacon's Rebellion: Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by
Nathaniel Bacon. Though the rebellion was crushed, it caused a move from
indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposees.
First Great Awakening: Religious
Apush review 3
John Dickinson: delegate of Pennsylvania, who led a group that favored quick
reconciliation with Great Britain as opposed to independence.
Monroe Doctrine: an American foreign policy opposing interference in the
Western hemisphere from outs
Bill of Rights
1st Amendment: Guarantees the freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and
the right to petition government.
2nd Amendment: Guarantees the right to bear arms.
3rd Amendment: Prohibits the quartering of soldiers in homes in peacetime.
Biology - Ch. 8
active transport -energy-expending process by which cells transport materials across the
cell membrane against a concentration gradient
endocytosis- active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the
Biology Review WK
Component of the cell wall of plants
Primary part of the plant used for photosynthesis
Parallel leaf venation
Reproductive part of an anthophyte
Necessary to transport sperm and for diffusi
1. anticodon: group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary ro an mRNA
2. bacteriophage: virus that infects bacteria
3. base pairing: principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine
and betwen guanine and cytos
Limits on Food Chain Length usually only a few links long Two
Energetic hypothesis: the length of a food chain is limited by the
inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain; food chain should
be longer in habitats of higher photosynt