Formal Logic Handout 5
Validity
To test for validity, construct a truth table with all of the premises and the conclusion on it. So,
for the argument:
PvQ
~P
~Q
The table will look like:
P
Q
PvQ
~P
~Q
T
T
T
F
F
F
T
T
T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F
F
F
T
T
We then look t
Truth Table Quick Reference Guide
P
Q
P&Q
P
Q
PvQ
T
T
T
T
T
T
F
T
F
F
T
T
T
F
F
T
F
T
F
F
F
F
F
F
P
Q
P!Q
T
T
T
F
T
P
Q
P "! Q
T
T
T
F
T
F
T
F
F
F
F
T
T
T
F
F
F
F
T
P
~P
T
F
F
T
Formal Logic Handout 4
Tautology, Contradiction, Contingencies and Logical Equivalence
The first thing we will do with truth tables will be to test for tautologies, contradictions and
contingency. Tautologies are statements that are always true. For examp
Formal Logic Handout 2
Negation Manipulation
The next important element of formal logic to get a handle on is what to do with all of the
negations. As you might expect, we can take a double negative and remove the ~s. So, ~A
can be turned into A. The ~s m
Formal Logic Handout 3
Truth Tables
The whole point of learning how to symbolize sentences is that we are now able use them in
truth tables. Truth tables are a philosophical tool that allow us to determine under what
conditions a statement is true or fals
Formal Logic Handout 1
Symbolization
The basics of formal logic involve representations of propositions and symbols. A proposition
is a simple sentence (for example: men are mortal, it is raining, Tom is left-handed., etc.).
These propositions are represe
Lynn Robinson
Personhood
Everyone has their own way at looking at themselves and at their
three parts of personhood. Everyone has the three aspects of personhood;
emotion-desires, intellect, and spiritedness. The only difference is that each
personhood is
Lynn Robinson
Part 1: Aesaras Method & Tripartite Soul/Personhood
Question 1: Aeseras method is called the natural law theory. Aesera
uses the approach of natural law and how it applies to our every day life.
We can discover not only the natural philosoph
Aesara of Lucania
Aesara Worksheet
Background: Plato offers us a splendid introduction to our study of philosophy and
personhood with his tripartite soul metaphor from The Republic. In this Worksheet we
will turn our attention to another early philosopher
1.Some faculties of our Spiritedness include
calmness, humility, compassion, gentleness and strength.
2. The primary function of our Spiritedness faculties are to keep us
calm and emotionally stable. Without our spiritedness, we would
always become angry
This assignment is worth ten points and due no later than midnight on
Friday, the 12th week of class. Reduce the negations, (if you can), for
all of the following:
1) ~A
A
2) ~ (~A & ~B) A & B
3) ~ (A <-> B) (~ A & B) v (A & ~ B)
4) (~A & ~B) & (~C v ~D)
P
T
F
T
F
1) ~ (~P & Q)
a. First Simplify to P v ~Q
b. Since there are two letters in the sentence we will have a table that is 4 lines
c. Values for P come from the left side of table so just copy down
d. Values for ~Q take the opposite of Q on the left
This assignment is worth ten points and is due no later than midnight
on Friday, the 13th week of class. Symbolize and run truth tables for 15.
Use the following key to symbolize:
J: There are jackals on the stairs.
E: There are jackals in the elevator.
M
Haynes, Tiffany
August 25, 2016
General Logic
1) I hate cats and dogs.
a. C & D
2) I need a fork.
a. F
3) The groceries can go in either paper or plastic.
a. P v L
4) John will have a sandwich or a burger, but not fish.
a. (S v B) &~F
5) Either your mom a