What is philosophy?
o Philosophy is the study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and
existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline.
What is the ingredient of philosophy?
What is the fundamental task of philosop
1a. Moral nihilism: there are no morally right or wrong viewpoints, that the whole moral issue is
a cultural game, and nobodys opinion matters in the end because there is no wright or wrong.
1a. skepticism: the fact that we cant know whethe
1. Provide an accurate definition of Psychological Egoism (PE) and Ethical Egoism (EE).
Explain the differences between the two
o Psychological Egoism: the idea that we are all selfish. We all behave this way.
o Ethical Egoism: look after y
1. Who was Kant?
a. Immanuel Kant. Grew up in East Prussia. Professor in logic and metaphysics in
1770. Developed the Kant-Laplace hypothesis. Wrote three major works.
2. Why Kant's perspective is called Deontologism?
a. Because his theory
STUDY GUIDE 6: PERSONHOOD AND RIGHTS
READ THE MORAL OF THE STORY: Rosenstand, CHAPTER 7 AND THEN BE READY TO ANSWER
THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
What Is a Human Being?
o A creature that walks on two legs, but is not a bird.
READ THE MORAL OF THE STORY: Rosenstand, CHAPTER 8-9
AND THEN BE READY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
What is Virtue and what is Character?
Teacher of philosophy, science, and rhetoric in Athens
1. What is utilitarianism?
a. A course of action that will maximize happiness and minimize unhappiness for
the greatest number of people. Pleasure is good, pain is bad.
2. Jeremy bentham
a. Hedonistic calculus
i. Investigating all aspects o
1.-) I think he would say hes a moral nihilist. Because for what I can see there are no moral
claims for him, he doesnt seem to have any moral standards and just does whats best for him.
2.-) It would be hard to live a moral life
1. According to Aristotle, the function of men is performing activities of soul.
2. Aristotle understands happiness as the purpose of the activities people perform, for
example the purpose of a knife is to cut. He thinks i
1.) If morality is determined by Gods commands, is there anything to prevent him from
arbitrarily deeming acts like murder or genocide morally permissible?
If morality is determined by Gods commands, then there is nothing to prev
1.- According to Mills utilitarianism, is it morally permissible to place a whole battalion of
soldiers in danger in order to save one soldier?
No, the life of the soldier that is in danger is valuable but it is not worth it to
2-) Treating people as ends means that you do not use them as means to achieve something
without them knowing your intent.
3-) Justice is doing the right thing, coming to the right conclusion, regardless of whether there
Target Grade: AT-R 9:30- 10:45 am
Specific Purpose- To persuade the audience that killing animals for clothing is immoral.
Opener- At least once in our lives, we all have seen a clothing article made out of an animals
According to Aristotle, how do we acquire virtues and vices?
How does this connect to the idea that our jobs can affect our character?
According to Aristotle, we acquire virtues and vices through developed behavioral
configurations that are habitually con
Weekly Assignment I
What does Adam Smith say motivates economic activity?
Why would this seem to suggest that there is no place for morality in business?
Adam Smith asserts that self interest motivates economic activity. Mr. Smith emphasizes
that while th
According to the Greatest Happiness Principle, how should we decide between two different
courses of action? Explain how this can justify actions that cause others pain or unhappiness in
According to the Greatest Happiness Principle we should
Explain what Kant means by acting out of inclination as opposed to acting out of duty
An example to explain what Kant means by acting out of inclination is if your child was
in the crossfire of a drive by shooting and you impulsively push the child down o
Using an example, explain the idea that there are no universal, objective moral standards.
An example to perhaps support the idea that there are no universal, objective moral standards is
that in countries such as Afghanistan, the families of rape victims
S ubjectivism in Ethics
Take any [vicious] action.Wilful murder, for instance.
Examine it in all lights, and see if you can find that matter of fact,
or real existence, which you call vice.You can never find it,
till you turn yo
What Is Morality?
The Problem of Definition
There are many rival theories, each expounding
a different conception of what it means to live
morally, and any definition that goes beyond
Socrates simple formulation (how we oug
Does Morality Depend on
The Presumed Connection Between Morality and
In popular thinking, morality and religion are
inseparable. People commonly believe that
morality can be understood only in the
Week 4 Assignment
1. You can still ask whether deceiving the customer is generalizable if loyalty to
coworkers is one of your reasons for being deceptive. What is the answer?
a. You can ask whether or not it is generali
Week 3 Assignment
1. Suppose that when John Pepper discovered the espionage, he also discovered that very similar
information appeared in the business media the day before the trash bins were raided. How
does the analys