Heat, energy and work:
Energy is exchanged between system and surround in the form of heat when they are at different
Heat added to a system is given by a positive sign, whereas heat extracted from a system is
given negative sign.
Equilibrium is the state of a process in which the properties like temperature, pressure, and
concentration etc of the system do not show any change with passage of time.
In all processes which attain equilibrium, two opposing processes are in
Open chain saturated hydrocarbon with general formula (CnH2n+2).
All the C atoms are single bonded i.e. sp3 hybridised.
Conformations of Alkane
Conformations are the different arrangement of atoms that can be converted into one
another by rotation
Large molecules having high molecular mass formed by combination of number of small units
The process of formation of polymers from respective monomers.
Found in plants and animals.
Classification of carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides: Polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones which cannot be
decomposed by hydrolysis to give simpler carbohydrates.Examples: Glucose, Fructose, Ribose,
Arabinose, Mannose, Gulose etc.
Atomic number = Mass Number = 1
Isotopes of hydrogen:
H1 : Protium , Most abundant in nature
H1: Deuterium (D), Component of heavy water.
H1 : Tritium (T) , Radioactive in nature
History of the Atom
Democritus - 400BC - all matter is made of tiny, invisible particles, called ATOMS (indivisble)
"By convention there is color, by convention sweetness, by convention bitterness, but in reality there are
atoms and space.
Hybridization (a mixture of orbitals)
Notice the trend, as we keep adding bonds and electron pairs, we keep adding orbitals in a certain order.
If we have 1 bond, then we use the s orbital (s orbital). If we have 2 bonds, then we use a s and a p