Statistics- the study of how to collect, organize, analyze and interpret info, Population- the collection of individuals or items of interest, Censusmeasurements from an entire pop are used, Sample- the subset of the pop on which we take measurements, Dat
Ch 21
Mean of stat = parameter i ts estimate , stand. D.
Estimate pop portion with confidence , Level of Confidence The degree of certainty (probability that we are correct)
Level of significance denoted is one minus the level of confidence (probabili ty
Sample space the set of all possible outcomes from an experiment Roll a diequant. Flip a coinqual.Event a subset of the sample space Probability (of an event A) denoted , is the expected proportion of occurrences of A if the experiment were performed a la
sample mean: When most people use the word average, they are talking about the mean.
where
is the sample meanis the sumis the data valuesis the sample size
The mean is the sum of the data values divided by the sample size.Important characteristics of the
Statistics- the study of how to collect, organize, analyze and interpret info
Population- the collection of individuals or items of interest Census- measurements from an entire pop are used Sample- the subset of the pop on which we take measurements Data-
STA 200 Quiz 4 Solutions 1) You would draw a pie chart to display what? Solution: One qualitative variable 2) What type of graph is this? Solution: Bar graph
3) Identify the category with the highest frequency in the graph. Solution: Always
4) Which time
STA 200 Quiz 3 Solutions 1) You are testing the effects of aspirin and diet on whether a heart attack can be prevented. You will have three doses of aspirin that you will test in your study (250mg, 500mg, and 1000mg). The types of diet you will consider a
STA 200 Quiz 2 Solutions 1) A numerical characteristic of the sample is known as what? Solution: Statistic 2) When asking survey questions, you should satisfy which of the following? Solution: All other choices are correct (Remove unnecessary complexity,
STA 200 Quiz 1 Solutions 1) Which of the following is the study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret information? Solution: Statistics 2) Statistics is used in which of the following fields? Solution: All other choices are correct (Politics
Chapter 17 Thinking about Chance
In this chapter Introduction to probability Probability rules Independence Probability from a contingency table Introduction to probability We will look at situations with more than one outcome for which we cannot know the
Chapter 15 Describing Relationships: Regression, Prediction, and Causation
In this chapter Linear regression Cautions with regression Linear regression Deterministic View This is the idea that Y is caused by X or that once X has happened, Y will follow. W
Chapter 14 Describing Relationships: Scatterplots and Correlation
In this chapter Identifying correlation graphically Quantifying a linear correlation "Causal" research Identifying correlation graphically Correlation an association or relationship between
Chapter 13 Normal Distributions
In this chapter Density curves Identifying shape of a distribution Standardized scores Density curves Statistical software can replace the separate bars of a histogram with a smooth curve that represents the overall shape o
Chapter 12 Describing Distributions with Numbers
In this chapter Measures of central tendency Measures of dispersion Measures of position Box-and-whisker plot Measures of central tendency In this chapter we will mainly deal with the calculation of statist
Chapter 11 Displaying Distributions with Graphs
In this chapter Stem-and-Leaf plot Histogram Shapes of Distributions Stem-and-Leaf plot The goal with the graphs in this chapter is to look at the distribution for a quantitative variable. When looking at th
Chapter 10 Graphs, Good and Bad
In this chapter Pie chart Bar graph Line graph Pie chart We are now to the point in the class where we will begin looking at descriptive statistics. Remember that descriptive statistics are methods of summarizing a set of d
Chapter 8 Measuring
In this chapter Validity and reliability Types of data Levels of measure Validity and reliability Validity a measurement is valid if it actually measures what it claims to measure Often a rate (percent) at which something occurs is a m
Chapter 6 Experiments in the Real World
In this chapter Loss of subjects in experiments Experimental design Loss of subjects in experiments Non-adherers subjects who participate but do not follow the experimental treatments Dropouts subjects who begin the
Chapter 5 Experiments, Good and Bad
In this chapter Variables in a study Treatments in an experiment Things to watch for in an experiment Variables in a study To conduct a study properly, you must do the following: Get a representative sample Get a large
Chapter 4 Sample Surveys in the Real World
In this chapter Types of error Survey questions Believing a statistic Types of error Sampling frame list of every individual in the population Under-coverage when some groups in the population are left out of the
Chapter 3 What Do Samples Tell Us?
In this chapter Statistics and parameters Margin of Error Statistics and parameters Statistic A numerical characteristic of a sample. This value is known when we take our sample, but it will change from sample to sample.
Chapter 2 Samples, Good and Bad
In this chapter Bias Sampling Types of Random Sampling Bias Bias a prejudice in one direction If a statistic is biased it will tend to overestimate or underestimate the value we are trying to predict. We can eliminate (or a
Chapter 1 Where Do Data Come From?
In this chapter Introduction to statistics The branches of statistics Types of studies Introduction to statistics How do you define statistics? What do you think of when you hear the term statistics? The formal definitio