Some new immigrants arrived as refugees with no possessions
and were housed in temporary camps known as ma'abarot; by
1952, over 200,000 immigrants were living in these tent cities.
During this period, food, clothes and furniture had to be
Shia rely on their own chain of reliable guarantors, trusting
compilations such as Kitab al-Kafi and Tahdhib al-Ahkam instead,
and later hadiths (usually called akhbr by Shi'i). The Shia
version of hadiths contain the words, conduct and example se
1. that Gaza was by all intents and
purposes still occupied.
2. Jump up^ See for example:
* Hajjar, Lisa (2005). Courting
Conflict: The Israeli Military
Court System in the West Bank
and Gaza. University of
p. 96. ISBN 0520241940. The
The city of Jerusalem is of special importance to Jews, Muslims
and Christians as it is the home of sites that are pivotal to their
religious beliefs, such as the Old City that incorporates
the Western Wall and the Temple Mount, the Al-Aqsa Mosque and
the Orthodox rabbinate.
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Israel has a
a committee of two Knesset members, three Supreme Court
justices, two Israeli Barmembers and two ministers (one of which,
Israel's justice minister, is the committee's chai
That day, David Ben-Gurion, the executive head of the Zionist
Organization and president of the
as of 2015. 9Notes
The West Bank was occupied by Israel in
exiting the area except for isolated cases
it deemed humanitarian.[3
The country's second largest group of citizens are Arabs,
numbering 1,775,400 people (including the Druze and most East
Jerusalem Arabs). The great majority of Israeli Arabs are
Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semisettled Negev Bedou
1. The September 1983 implementation of
the sharia throughout the country had
been controversial and provoked
widespread resistance in the
predominantly non-Muslim south .
Opposition to the sharia, especially to the
application of hudud (sing., hadd), or
the territory was known by a variety of other names, including
Judea, Samaria, Southern Syria, Syria Palaestina, Kingdom of
Jerusalem, Iudaea Province, Coele-Syria, Djahy, and Canaan.
Main article: History of Israel
Main article: History
Since the 1970s, most Muslim-majority countries have faced
vociferous demands from their religious groups and political
parties for immediate adoption of sharia as the sole, or at least
primary legal framework. Some moderates and liberal scholars
the Arabic Text. Alexandria, Va.: Al-Saadawi
Publications. ISBN 978-1-881963-592.OCLC 35673415. The complete
translation (in nine volumes) of a popular
Sunni collection of hadith.
Mahmassani, Maher (2014). Islam in
Retrospect: Recovering the Message. Ol
This led to a continuation of a "largely oral contracting culture" in
Muslim nations and communities.
In lieu of written evidence, oaths are accorded much greater
weight; rather than being used simply to guarantee the truth of
states that sharia is misunderstood from a failure to
distinguish sharia from siyasah (politics).
Freedom of speech
See also: Islam and blasphemy, Jyllands-Posten Muhammad
cartoons controversy, Blasphemy laws of the Islamic Republic of
. "The extraordinary Makhtesh
Ramon the largest natural
crater in the
world ." Archived 2 April 2015
at the Wayback Machine.
Jump up^ "Makhtesh Ramon".
Jewish Virtual Library.
Retrieved 12 February 2010.
Jump up^ Rinat, Zafrir (29 May
The Israel is one of the world's technological leaders in
water technology. In 2011, its water technology industry
was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of
products and services in the tens of millions of dollars. The
ongoing shortage of
The Merneptah Stele (13th century BC). The majority ofbiblical
archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel,"
representing the first instance of the name in the record.
Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the
name "State of
The Israel Defense Forces have been
involved in several major wars and border
conflicts in its short history, making it one
of the most battle-trained armed forces in
Most Israelis are drafted into the military at the age of 18. Men
1. the uttermost part of the
heaven, yet will I gather them
from thence, and will bring them
unto the place that I have
chosen to cause my name to
dwell there." (Nehemiah 1:9).
2. Jump up^ "Walking the Bible
Timeline". Walking the Bible.
three-tier court system. At the lowest level are magistrate courts,
situated in most cities across the country. Above them aredistrict
courts, serving as both appellate courts and courts of first
instance; they are situated in five of Israel's six distric
The population are mainly Palestinians, including refugees of
the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. From their occupation in 1967 until
1993, the Palestinians living in these territories were under Israeli
military administration. Since the IsraelPLO letters of
ternationally famous contemporary
Israeli novelists include Amos
Oz, Etgar Keret andDavid
Grossman. The Israeli-Arab
satirist Sayed Kashua (who writes in
Hebrew) is also internationally
known. Israel has also
been the home of two leading
The religious affiliation of Israeli Jews varies widely: a social
survey for those over the age of 20 indicates that 55% say they
are "traditional", while 20% consider themselves "secular Jews",
17% define themselves as "Religious Zionists"; 8% define
The Sinai Peninsula wasreturned to Egypt in 1982.
Since 1964, Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert
waters of the Jordan River into the coastal plain, had been
trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water
The final version of the Quran, states Burton, was compiled while
the Prophet was still alive. Most scholars accept that the Quran
as is used for sharia, was compiled into the final current form
during the caliphate of Uthman.