What is ethnicity?
Characteristics that are very difficult and, in some cases, impossible to change
Language, religion, skin color, geographical location, and social class
Provides order, meaning, identity
Commonly used in
State Sponsored Terrorism
WHAT?: State officials, usually covertly, uses terrorism to influence politics of another state or
suppress threats at home
HOW?: Generally, through clandestine agencies or mercenaries
WHO?: 22/36 groups listed as terrorists by s
Who are they?
Social-revolutionary, Marxist, Leninist
1950s-1990; 25-30 active leftist groups
Considered more of an annoyance than threat
o Except in Cuba (1959) and Nicaragua (1979)
Responsible for highest number of attacks worldwid
Religion and Terrorism
Violence is first and foremost a sacramental act or divine duty executed in direct response
to some theological demand
Secular terrorism- violence corrects flaw in system
Religious terrorism- system not worth
Terrorism and Rationality
What is rationality?
After doing a cost-benefit analysis, you choose the option that is in your best interest
Expected political gains minus expected cost outweigh the net expected benefits of
alternative forms of protest
Who commits it? Who leads it?
Individuals without insignia- no identifier
*The better question is: Who hasnt committed terrorism?
Modern Conception of a Terrorist
What is Terrorism?
Oxford: a system of terror
I know it when I see it!
It is a tactic
Refusal to be bound by rules of warfare and codes of conduct
Why is it difficult to define?
Evolution of the term
First use in 1793- regime de la terreur was an in
PS 391 Study Guide
Definitions of terrorism (how does it differ from crime, guerilla warfare)
Oxford: A system of terror
Hoffman: Deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of
violence in the pursuit of political change
What is it?
Most fatal form of terrorism
Began in early 1980s
50% of attacks occurred since 2000
1981-1999 only 7 countries
2000-2004 18 countries
43% of attacks by Islamic groups pre 9/11, 76% after
First case, NOT LTTE, but in L
Media and Terrorism
Goal: generate publicity and attracts attention to cause
Vehicle for recruitment
Undermine support for government, win converts
Means of persuasion and psychological warfare
Evolution of Media Use
Cold-War- Marxist groups used rad