Paternalistic model Role of physician: guardian
Physician obligations: promote patient's wellbeing independent of patients current preference
Patient values:objective and shared by physician and patient
Concept of autonomy:assenting to objective values
bioethics application of ethics to medicine
Hume argued it is impossible to draw normative judgements (value claims) on descriptive facts
Knobe effect values influence the way we understand what is factual
relationship between ethics and law law = minimal
Principle of Justice we ought to aim for fair access to or the equitable division of health care
Principle of Autonomy patients should be able to make important decisions for themselves and
have confidential information protected
Principle of Be
rule utilitarianism specific acts are right and wrong, independent of the consequences (ie
murder) - problem when people take it too far and it becomes "rule worship"
indirect utilitarianism certain actions have a tendency to increase utility (ie keeping
Utilitarianism maximizing human welfare is the only thing that determines rightness
Useful in emergency settings - triage
John Stewart Mill Hedonistic ultilitarian, believed that pleasure equals happiness and therefore
rightness, and pain equals unhappine
hacking breaking into another computer without
copyright the specific rights that an author or creator of a
work that express ownership of the work.
piracy the act of using copyrighted material
quality of product and control products should be
Benjemin Franklin american statesman
corporation legal entity with many rights granted to human beings
anti trust laws laws designed to maintain fair competition between business.
Moral development Human growth in understanding what makes actions right or
Profession Having the freedom to makes one's own choices. In a profession, privilege of
working with little or no supervision.
Professional Ethics The standards or codes of conduct adopted formally by a group of persons
practicing the same vocation.
Morals Behaviors that are judged to be consistent with good ethical thinking and decision
Critical Thinking Informed and logical thought
Applied Ethics The actual use of moral standards of behavior in making decisions about human
Ethics The Reasoned study of what is morally right and wrong
Egoism Emphasizes the aim of always acting for perceived self interest,
usually in the long term
Consequential Theories base morality on the results and outcomes of
behaviors. Actions with good
Umma The community of all Muslims.
Ecumenism The promotion of worldwide Christian
Also the Lord's Supper, or Holy
Communion, a central sacrament and ritual of Christianity
patterned after the Last Supper, which was shared by
Jesus and his
Jihad "Exertion" or "struggle." Sometimes counted
as the sixth pillar of Islam, the general spiritual
struggle to be a devout Muslim. In a more narrow
context, it refers to armed struggle (holy war) for the
sake of Islam, which the Qur'an supports only if
Yom Kippur Judaism's most important holy day, occurring in
the fall on the tenth day of the new year; spent primarily at
synagogue services in prayer for forgiveness of sins and marked
by abstention from food and drink (fasting).
Zionism Originally, the m
The Israelite king who led the monarchy to its height of
Diaspora The situation of Jews living away from their ancestral
homeland, a circumstance that has been true for most Jews since the
Holocaust The persecution of Jews b
Pali An ancient language of India, similar to Sanskrit but more commonly
understood, and used in the writing of the earliest Buddhist texts; most important
for Theravada Buddhism.
The second of the Four Noble Truths, selfish desire, which causes
The first of the Four Noble Truths, the basic Buddhist insight
that suffering is part of the human condition.
Eight-Fold Path The fourth of the Four Noble Truths; defines the basic
practices of Buddhism that lead to nirvana.
Five Precepts The basic
The eternal essence of reality and the source
of the universe, beyond the reach of human perception
The highest of the four classes of the caste
system, made up of priests.
The four classes: Brahmin (priests),
The Dreaming The mythic period during which the Ancestors roamed
The Laughing Jackass & The Sun Fire The story of how a bird sings
before the fire of the sun is kindled.
Toonkoo & Ngaardi A story about someone who went hunting,
chucked his spea
Supernatural beings who roamed the earth
during the Dreaming. They gave shape to the landscape
and created the various forms of life, including the first
humans. They organized the humans into tribes. When
they departed, they left symbols of thei