Scales of measurementNominal (name things); does not scale items, rather it just labels them. Numbers are only used
in nominal scales to distinguish among objects (1= male, 2=female). Used only for classification
Ordinal (order or rank things); orders o
PUREMEM
1.
2.
3.
4.
Drawing a histogram is a way of using stats to describe
the behavior of a whole sample of subjects. Calculating
a Z score is a way of describing the behavior of what?
Behavior of an individual subject
What would a subjects Z score be i
Module 4 Central Tendency
Central Tendency: numerical values referring to the center of distribution
 Mean/Average: Common Measure of CT
o X Bar
 Median
 Mode
Calculate Mean/Median/Mode in Excel:
fX besides formula bar select box next to mean box pops
Module 5 Variability
* Central tendency doesnt describe the central distribution
fX data base button
Range outliers give us trouble
2.75x distributions is an outlier
Range tells us variability between lowest and highest score
Dispersion degree to wh
Module 2 Week 1
Variables:
Variable property of an object/event that can take on different values

Continuous variables variables that can take on any value
o quantitative data; any kind of number.
o Percentage Score on Exam
o Number of food dish visi
Module 6 Week 2 Inferential Tests
Answering the question: But is this data significant? Does it mean it will always happen this
way, or was it happenstance?
Main Tests:
Ttests 3 types
ANOVAS 2 types
ChiSquare
Correlation
TTests: (only 2 levels o
What is the sampling distribution?
Element that allows us to determine how probable particular values of a test statistic
would be if in fact the null hypothesis were true
What is the alpha level?
The element and probability value that is used for the sta
What is the Sampling Distribution of the Mean?
The Sampling Distribution of the Mean is a hypothetical (imaginary) distribution
composed of an infinite number of sample means (x).
Why do we need a sampling distribution to conduct scientific
hypothesis tes
As a body of knowledge and as an academic discipline, what
are statistics?
Statistics comprises concepts and techniques that allow researchers to move beyond
the information provided by one study and make inferences about a larger population
What are desc
Summarizing the data
 First you want to know the shape of the distribution (is it bell curve, multimodal, etc)
After knowing shape of distribution
 Then we attempt to say quanitatively where the center of the distribution is and what
the spread is.
 Qu
Two branches of statistics
1. Descriptive statistics = describe or summarize a group of numbers
2. Inferential statistics = make inference that go beyond the numbers
Variables (shortterm memories men vs women example)
1. Independent variable (IV) is the
descriptive statistics
whenever the purpose is to describe data
inferential statistics
an important principle in statistics is variability. use statistics, which are measures on a
sample to infer values of parameters, which are measures on a population
po
How many scores fall within + or  one standard error of the
mean % wise?
68%
Why is the numerator of the formula for standard deviation
squared (x^2)
That is our degrees of freedomThe mean has to be positive and this will cancel out
negativesAS
A Cohen
Module 3 Displaying Data
Picture Best way to organize data for a human
Frequency Table Both Discrete Variables
Charts:
Bar charts 1 discrete v and frequency of v, or 1 discrete v and 1 continuous
o Most common
o Can see bar charts to show comparisons
301 Exam 3 Review
ANOVA: One factor; Chapter 16
ANOVA: Factorial, multiple factors with interaction effects; Chapter 17

March 18th: Intro to analysis of variance (testing multiple means and variables)

March 20th: ANOVA: One Factor , Followup tests
PUREMEM
1.
2.
3.
4.
If psychologists want to give the representative value of
a variable based on the scores in a sample, they usually
give the mean.
If you are given the variance for a sample, you can
calculate the SD simply by doing what? Taking the
squ

Alternative Hypothesis for ftests and ANOVAAt least one group mean is different.
MS between is larger than MS within.

Null Hypothesis for ftests and ANOVA group means are equal. Little to no variability
between groups.

Why do we call ANOVA analys
PSYC 301
QUANTITATIVE METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Spring 2014, Tuesdays/Thursdays 4:005:15pm, Strickler 102
Dr. Daniel A. DeCaro
daniel.decaro@louisville.edu
Department of Urban and Public Affairs, 218
Office hours: Tuesdays 2:303:30pm, and by appointment
Lab
301 Exam 3 Review
ANOVA: One factor; Chapter 16
ANOVA: Factorial, multiple factors with interaction effects; Chapter 17

March 18th: Intro to analysis of variance (testing multiple means and variables)

March 20th: ANOVA: One Factor , Followup tests