the chronologicalsequence of the Judges. Avith,
1 Isa. \x 4 ; x. 26 ; Ps lxxxiii. 11.
164 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
Hadad's capital,has been supposed to be a Moabite
town, and from this it has been inferred that the
Edomite kingdom at this time was much largert
1 2 Chron. viii. 3. 2 1 Kings viii.23-25. 3 1 Kings it. 18.
18S SYRIA AND PALESTINE
growth of the Damascene kingdom. In the next
generation it stood out conspicuouslyas the head
of the Aramaean confederacy,and for more than a
century it was able to thwart
a portion of his annual revenue in grain and oil.
When this did not suffice,he ceded twenty towns in
the land of Cabul on the Phoenician frontier.1
As an offset to his expenditureshe attempted to
increase his income by commercial enterprises.Ctorno-lling,
Rehoboam took the advice of the latter,and answered :
" My father made your yoke heavy,but I will add to
your yoke : my father chastised you with whips, but
I will chastise you with scorpions." On hearing this,
the northern tribes at once revolted,and mad
father's quarrelwith Jeroboam,1 but apparentlywith
less success. In the long run the greaterwealth and
the larger populationof the northern kingdom were
sure to count, and besides Judah suffered more hielayvthan
Israel at the hands of Shishak. According
Bir-'idri,i.e., "Bir is my glory." In that case Ben-hadad has
arisen by confusion of Bir with bar, Hebrew ben " son," and of
hidri with Hadad. Instead of Ben-hadad a more accurate form
of the name, accordingly, is probably Bir-hidri. See Winckler,
of the most brilliant dynasties in Hebrew history.
THE ADVANCE OF ASSYRIA
In 885 B.C., probably the same year in which
Omri usurped the throne of Israel,Ashur-natsir-pal
III. began to reign. For more than 100 years
Assyria had been
the Assyrian empire. If they again revolted, they
were wasted with fire and sword and their people
1 See p. 127.
' Annals, iii.51-92: Keilinschr. Bibhothek, i. 102-111.
202 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
were enslaved. At strategicpoints throughout the
failed to take Kir-hareseth, and had to content
themselves with wasting the land and reimposing
This was Jehoshaphat's last campaign. In 850 he
died and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (Joram),
who, in true Oriental fashion, slew all his brethre
And Omri took possession of the land (?)of Medeba, and
occupied it (during)his days ; and (during)half of my days
his son (occupied it),forty years (inall);
' but Chemosh rset-ored
it in my days. And I built Baal-meon, and I made in
it the reservoir (?);
Inasmuch, however, as in the next verse he is said to
have arisen from Midian and to have gone thence to
Egypt by way of Paran, it is probable that Mitsraim
is a corruptionof Mutsri (or Mutsrim), a district of
North Arabia adjacent to Midian and to Edom t
Hamath was Hamath the Great, the exilic editor of
1 2 Sara. x. 1-14. 2 2 Sam. xii. 31.
8 2 Sam. xvii. 27. 4 2 Sam. x. 15-19.
6 2 Sam. viii 3-5, 7-8. 6 2 Chron viii. 3.
, 2 Sain. viii. 9-11.
184 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
the Book of Kings lias supposed that Davi
treatment of Moab, suspected that designs of cqouen-st
were concealed under this message ; insulted
the ambassadors by cuttingoff their beards and their
robes, and sent them back to David. This was
equivalent to a declaration of war. The Ammonites
off and placed it in the temple of Dagon at Ashdod.
The land of Israel now lay open to the enemies,
and they spread themselves over it,burning and
pillagingas they went. Shiloh was probably dset-royed
at this time 2 and its priesthoodwas cpeolm-led
tute a search. After nine days nothing had been
discovered,and Wen-Amen requested permissionto
Leaving Dor, he arrived in Tyre, and thence cpereo-ded
toward Gebal. On the way he fell in with a
ship of the Zakkala, which he suspected of hiding
was given to send to Egypt for the credentials
and for more money.
Within two weeks the ship of Gebal returned,
bringing from Smendes and his queen Tent-Amen
8 pounds of gold,4 silver vessels,10 pieces of royal
linen, 500 rolls of papyrus, 500 ox-hides, 5
Egyptian,and through this interpreterbegged
for his life and the protection of his goods. Here
the papyrus breaks off. He must have returned to
Egypt, for this document is the official report of nis
journey ; but whether he succeeded in bringingback
and that he should prophesy with them. Then he
should hold himself ready for the first opportunityto
come forward as a leader.
All turned out as Samuel had anticipated.Saul
was seized with propheticecstasy,and knew himself
chosen of Yahweh. An opportunity
exercised by Hadad I.2 His wife is said to have been
a daughter of Matred," instead of which we should
probably read Mutsri, or North Arabia. The dkiomngof
Mutsri, which played an important part in later
history, was already powerful ; and Hadad found i
his armour-bearer. In this positionhe dgiuissthien-d
himself as a leader against the Philistines,
and so endeared himself to the people that he won
from them the praise, " Saul has slain his stahnodu-s,
but David his ten thousands." At court he
and he was unable to profitby his victory. A period
of decline set in,during which Assyria lost all her
possessions in Mesopotamia. This continued until
1116 B.C., when Ashur-dan I. came to the throne,
under whom the westward movement once more
A great pagutu (hippopotamus ?) and
a crocodile, dwellers in the river,and creatures of the Great
Sea the king of Egypt caused to bring, and he showed them
to the people of his land. "
From these statements we gather that Tiglathpileserreduced
twenty-nine,meets the historical conditions, but is
onl-a conjecture. All that we can be sure of is,that
Amaziah cannot have outlived Jelioash, and that
Uzziah must have come to the throne of Judah about
the same time that Jeroboam II. came to the throne
nirari was again in Syria at the cityof Martsuati,1
and Mari' once more perhaps came into conflict with
him. At all events, he gave Israel no more trouble
for a number of years.
In 799 Jehoahaz was succeeded by Jehoash. The
followingyear Joash, king of Ju
1 The inscriptionsof Ashurbanipal are published in part by G.
Smith, History of Assurbanipal ; S. A. Smith, Die Keilschrifttexte
Assurbanipals ; Jensen, KeilinschriftlicheBibliothek^ ii. 152-209.
268 SYEIA AND PALESTINE
renounced his allegianceto Assrria,
politicalgeography of Arabia since the expeditionsof
Sennacherib and of Esarhaddon. Melukhkha (Ma'in
of the O. T.) had fallen,and the hegemony in North
Arabia had passed to Aribi,the tribe from which our
name of Arabia is derived, of which Qidrai and