politicalgeography of Arabia since the expeditionsof
Sennacherib and of Esarhaddon. Melukhkha (Ma'in
of the O. T.) had fallen,and the hegemony in North
Arabia had passed to Aribi,the tribe from which our
name of Arabia is derived, of which Qidrai and
1 The inscriptionsof Ashurbanipal are published in part by G.
Smith, History of Assurbanipal ; S. A. Smith, Die Keilschrifttexte
Assurbanipals ; Jensen, KeilinschriftlicheBibliothek^ ii. 152-209.
268 SYEIA AND PALESTINE
renounced his allegianceto Assrria,
a ring in his lipswas obligedto omit reference to his
capture in the accompanying text.
In 668 Esarhaddon undertook another Egyptian
campaign,and having a presentimentof his ainpgproachdeath,
appointedbefore settingout his son Ashurbanipal
his successor i
Qaush-gabri, king of Edom ; Mutsuri, king of Moab ;
Puduilu, king of Ammon.
Only Sidon is absent from this list. As earlyas
678, apparently,Abd-milkot, the son of Ethbaal,
whom Sennacherib had installed as king,entered into
negotiationswith Tirhaqa, king
over Egypt to assume the title of Pharaoh.
In the same year probably Hezekiah died, and Manasseh,
his son, ascended the throne of Judah. In
G89 Sennacherib captured Babylon, and in revenge
for its repeated rebellions razed it to the ground.
The way was no
Avere not suspectedof having assisted in the expulsion
of Padi, he allowed to remain in their land, and over
them he subsequentlyreinstated Padi as king.
Hezekiah alone now remained unconquered, and
against him Sennacherib directed all his energy.
time probably belongs the statement of Menander
preservedby Josephus 4 that Sidon, Arka, Old Tyre
(= Ushu), and many other cities revolted from Tyre
and gave themselves up to the Assyrians. Since Tyre
itself would not submit, the king of Assyria attacked
were deposed,and Assyrian partisanswere appointed
in their places. Thus the prestigeof Assyria was
once more restored.
The periodfrom 719 to 712 was occupied chiefly
with the subjugationof the northern peoples from
Lake Urumia on the east to Phrygia on th
252 SYEIA AND PALESTINE
for his embassy to Hezekiah that is recorded in
2 Kings xx. 12-19 (Isa.xxxix.). The propheticdmeocntufrom
which this episode is drawn places it in
close connection with an account of Hezekiah's inells-s,1
and this,according to 2 Ki
Tyrian chronicler,as authorityfor an attack of Smahanel-ser
on Tyre. His words are as follows :
(Luli in the Assyrian inscriptions) . . .
ruled thirty-six (twenty-six)years. He subdued the
people of Kittium (in Cyprus),when they revolted.
2 In view of the Assyrian records this spellingof the name is
preferableto Rezin of the Book of Kings.
238 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
pileser. The allies were anxious that Judah also
should enter the coalition ; and when Jotham refused,
Rezon and Pekah invaded h
king of Hamath in the time of Sargon.2
The states which had joinedAzriyau in his revolt,
Tiglath-pileserdeprivedof autonomy and formed into
an Assyrian province,which he placed under the rule
of his son Shalmaneser. A large number of the
inhabitants he tr
by exercisingbarbarous severitytoward his opponents.
1 Lidzbarski, Randbuch, p. 440, plate XXII.
, Miiller, CraonrtyempoReview, April, L894, p. 572. P'or other literature see p xxxv.
232 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
The cityof Tiphsah (Tappuah ?),which refused to
4 Obelisk,27-31 ; Monolith, i. 29-ii. 13.
5 Obelisk,32-51 ; Monolith, ii. 13-75.
THE ADVANCE OF ASSYRIA 207
power, which up to this time no Assyrian monarch
had ventured to touch.
During the four years in which Shalmaneser was
occupied with the destructio
nirari was again in Syria at the cityof Martsuati,1
and Mari' once more perhaps came into conflict with
him. At all events, he gave Israel no more trouble
for a number of years.
In 799 Jehoahaz was succeeded by Jehoash. The
followingyear Joash, king of Ju
twenty-nine,meets the historical conditions, but is
onl-a conjecture. All that we can be sure of is,that
Amaziah cannot have outlived Jelioash, and that
Uzziah must have come to the throne of Judah about
the same time that Jeroboam II. came to the throne
And Omri took possession of the land (?)of Medeba, and
occupied it (during)his days ; and (during)half of my days
his son (occupied it),forty years (inall);
' but Chemosh rset-ored
it in my days. And I built Baal-meon, and I made in
it the reservoir (?);
failed to take Kir-hareseth, and had to content
themselves with wasting the land and reimposing
This was Jehoshaphat's last campaign. In 850 he
died and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (Joram),
who, in true Oriental fashion, slew all his brethre
the Assyrian empire. If they again revolted, they
were wasted with fire and sword and their people
1 See p. 127.
' Annals, iii.51-92: Keilinschr. Bibhothek, i. 102-111.
202 SYRIA AND PALESTINE
were enslaved. At strategicpoints throughout the
of the most brilliant dynasties in Hebrew history.
THE ADVANCE OF ASSYRIA
In 885 B.C., probably the same year in which
Omri usurped the throne of Israel,Ashur-natsir-pal
III. began to reign. For more than 100 years
Assyria had been
Bir-'idri,i.e., "Bir is my glory." In that case Ben-hadad has
arisen by confusion of Bir with bar, Hebrew ben " son," and of
hidri with Hadad. Instead of Ben-hadad a more accurate form
of the name, accordingly, is probably Bir-hidri. See Winckler,
father's quarrelwith Jeroboam,1 but apparentlywith
less success. In the long run the greaterwealth and
the larger populationof the northern kingdom were
sure to count, and besides Judah suffered more hielayvthan
Israel at the hands of Shishak. According