Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
All cells have:
1. Cell or plasma membrane (separates the cell from the outer environment)
2. Genetic material (DNA)
TWO GENERAL TYPES OF CELLS:
Prokaryotic ("before nucleus") - a cel
Features that distinguish protozoal & helminthic infections :
1.) More important in tropical countries than in countries like the U. S.
However, parasitic diseases are becoming more prevalent in the U. S. as
more infected people move here
(Sterilization & Disinfection)
Some Important Terms Defined:
sterilization - treatment to destroy all microbial life (even destroys bacterial endospores
and fungal spores); there are no degrees of sterility!
Metabolism of Microbes
I. A Model for Metabolism (using E. coli as an example)
What is metabolism? All the biochemical reactions that take place in a cell.
The Model: Metabolism leading to the synthesis of a new microbial cell has 3
1. Raw M
The term microbial growth refers to the growth of a population (or an increase in the
number of cells), not to an increase in the size of the individual cell. Cell division leads
to the growth of cells in the population.
Two Types of Asex
virus means poison; someone once called them "a piece of bad news wrapped in a
obligate intracellular parasites (can reproduce/replicate only inside a host cell)
not cells; debate over whether or not they are
Scope and History of Microbiology
Why Study Microbiology?
1. Impact on Human Health
2. Balance of Nature - food source, play a role in decomposition, help other
animals digest grass (cattle, sheep, termites).
3. Environmental provide safe drinking water;
Microscopy and Staining
Microscopy is the technology of making very small things visible to the
human eye. Most microbes are so small that they are measured in
micrometers or nanometers. A typical bacterial cell is about 1 um while a
Why is it necessary to study chemistry? Living things are made of matter (anything that
occupies space & has mass) & matter follows the laws of chemistry. Even the
characteristics we consider to be unique to living things are the re
(DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis), Recombinant DNA, Genetic Engineering
I. THE BASIS OF HEREDITY
All information necessary for life is stored in an organisms chromosomes, which are
made up of DNA (exception: some viruses only have R
The Classification of the Bacteria
I. Principles of Biological Classification
Organisms are classified into any particular group because they have certain
common characteristics. Classification of organisms 1.) establishes the criteria for