Types of Measures
Scales of Measurement
Levels of a variable may be coded using different scales of measurement.
Determines use of statistics.
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CHAPTER 2 PERSPECTIVES ON ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
WHAT CAUSES ABNORMALITY?
During the semester we will be discussing many disorders and invariably people want to
know what causes the disorders and how to treat them. The quick and easy answer is It
Measurement Notes- PSYCH
Is the measure consistent?
i.e., if I take my weight once and then take it 2 minutes later, is it the
Test-retest: participants tested twice, apart in time
Interrater: two or more observers ratings
Psych notes on variables and reliability
Correlations and causality
Nonexperimental design? Causal inferences are not appropriate.
Might choose variables, however, because you believe there might be
Correlation between X and Y is necessary (but
Life Span Study Guide
Founding Figures: Piaget
Basics of cognitive developmental stages
Development towards complexity from Rigid to Complex
There is a consistent relationship between stage and b
Naturalistic Observation Problems
Lacks internal validity
Cannot control variables
Cannot always know what variables are present (confounds)
Individuals w/ abnormal or unusual experiences such as di
Behavior in the scientific method
Attempt is made to apply what we have learned
Example, eyewitness testimony
Decide what to observe
Systematic observation determined by hypothesis
i.e., young girls are more polite than young boys
A set of standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a
profession (American Heritage Dictionary, 1992).
Code established for psychologists by APA and Belmont Report
1. Treat human subjects with respect
2. Care for welfar
Correlations & Claims
direct relation between variables
inverse relation between variables
Correlation is NOT causation
X may cause Y
Y may cause X
Correlation may be based on chance factors
May be 3rd variable n
Most commonly used correlation coefficient
Describes strength and direction of linear relation between two quantitative
ordinal, interval, ratio
X (predictor) and Y (outcome)
Range -1.00 to +1.00
1956-1970s: 1 in 10 children admitted with mental retardation
infected with hepatitis.
What was done cannot be undone. But we can end the silence. We can stop
turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye a
Validity (as related to measurement)
Does the test measure what its supposed to measure?
Face validity: extent to which measure is plausible
Content validity: the extent to which the items actually represent the
type of material they are supposed to re
Empiricism: process of learning through direct experience/observation.
Belief perseverance: holding onto a belief even in the face of
Confirmation bias: tendency to search out and
eg. GOOG, iPhone, Yen, or Gold
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List of Stock Exchanges
See also Stock Exchanges.
A stock exchange is an institution, organization or association that serves as a market for
trading financial instrumen