EXPERIMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY
Additional Pre-Lab Components
CHEM117 Fall 2010
Measured properties are characterized by their accuracy and their precision. When using measured values in calculations, it is most important to note that preci
States of Matter - What is a Liquid?
The liquid state bridges the helter-skelter of an ideal gas
(a disorganized collection of generic, undifferentiated,
featureless particles) and the sleepy regularity of an
ideal solid (a highly organized ensemble of u
Types of Crystalline Solids
Crystalline Solids are classified as type of one
of the following four categories:
Collective Electron Sharing between atoms characterizes
a metallic bonds:
Delocalized electrons are gathered i
States of Matter - What is a Solid ?
Except for the large number of particles, a solid is
the complete opposite of an ideal gas:
Mostly empty space
containing a very
large number of
particles that do not
interact and are in
Forces Between Atoms and Molecules
Forces between atoms result in molecules
Gases, Solids, Liquids States of Matter
Forces between molecules define the state of matter
Chapter 8 Notes
Chemical bonds are formed between different atoms through
(i) Share of electrons
Between nonmetal atoms to form molecular compounds
The bonds are covalent or polar covalent
H2, O2, CO2, CH4
4H + C
Chapter 7 Notes
In this chapter, we will rationalize observed trends in:
Sizes (radii) of atoms and ions.
Ionization energy (I.E.).
Electron affinity (E.A.).
The number of valence electrons largely determines the behavior of an element.
Chapter 6 notes
Electronic Structure of Atoms
The wave nature of light
The electromagnetic spectrum
Increase in wavelength ()
Decrease in energy (E)
Decrease in frequency ()
Chapter 6 notes
Radiation, such as light, microwaves, television and
Chapter 10 Notes
The Characteristics of gases
Gases are highly compressible
Gases expand to fill their containers.
When a gas is subjected to pressure, its volume decreases (V 1/P).
Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases.
o Any kind of push or pull exerted on an object.
o Force (F)= mass (m) acceleration (a)
o Acceleration (a) = change of velocity (v)/change in time (t)
o a = v/t = (m/s)/(s) = m/s2
o F = (m) (a)
A solution: a homogeneous mixture (one phase) of two or more components.
Solution: Solute(s) + solvent
Solute: component in small quantity (minority)
Solvent: component in large quantity (majority)
Solutions in which the solvent
Chapter 3_Supplement Notes
Atomic Weight (A.W.), Molecular Weight (M.W.), Formula Weight
(F.W.), and Molar Mass (MM)
Molecular Formula vs. Empirical Formula
Give the exact number of atoms of each element in a compound.
Chapter 2 Notes
The Modern View of Atomic Structure
The atom consists of positive, negative, and neutral species
Protons, electrons, and neutrons
Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, which is small.
Most of the mass of
Solution A Definition
A solution is a homogeneous mixture
Homogeneous: composition and properties
are uniform (at least to the naked eye)
Mixture: two or more components are present
in variable proportions
The solvent is the compo