Figure 1. Historical and predicted land changes for coastal Louisiana. Boxed locations refer to
1. What regions experienced the greatest loss of land?
The wetlands along the southernmost border of Louisiana are losing the
El Nino/La Nina paper
El Nino is the warming of waters near the equator that usually
occurs every two to seven years. During this anomaly, surface pressure
near the Indian Ocean tends to rise, while pressure falls over the
Structure of the universe
Modern era: universe made up of matter and energy
Stars and Galaxies
o Stars are immense balls of incandescent gas
o Solar syst
The Strength of the Pack
We have a problem in this country. Let me rephrase that: we have many
problems in this country, but most of them can be traced back to a single underlying
evil that has infected the minds of many Americans. It seems that many peop
Structure of Earth
What Is the Structure of the Universe?
Modern era: Universe is made up of matter and energy.
Mattersubstance of the universe; takes up space.
Energythe ability to do work.
PHYSICAL GEOLOGY (EENS1110)
Why Study Minerals?
States of Matter
States of Matter
States of Matter
What Is a Mineral?
The geologic defi
1. What are the major principles of relative dating? How is each used to determine relative ages?
a. Most sediments are deposited in horizontal layers, a younger sediment is always deposited on top of older
ones, a younger sediment can conta
1. What can be said about the ages of oceanic rocks?
A. The rocks gets older further away from mid ocean ridges
2. What plate boundaries are outlined by volcanoes?
A. Oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries
3. What plate boundaries have the deepes
Geologic processes reshape Earths interior and sculpt its surface; they determine the
distribution of metals and petroleum and control which places are most susceptible to
volcanoes, floods, and other natural disasters
How does geology influenc
Speaker: Frederick William, great elector of Prussia
Occasion: The elector is attempting to tell his son some guidelines on how to lead a
Audience: The audience is Fredericks son, to whom he is giving advice.
Purpose: The purpose is,
o Locards exchange principle- Any time two people come into
contact, evidence is exchanged with each other as well as the
o Trace evidence- hair, fingerprints, soil, blood, broken glass
Types of evidence
o Direct: firstha
A mineral is a
inorganic solid, with a
fixed crystalline structure and
a definable chemical composition (limited range of chemica
Physical Geology Exam 2 Study Guide
Be able to answer the following questions from Chapter 6 in your textbook:
What is and is not a volcano?a volcano is a vent where magma and other volcanic products erupt onto the surface. Some
Physical Geology Final Study Guide: Part I
Major questions addressed in class (and in book):
What are metamorphic rocks? a rock that came from a protolith and changed due to
intense heat or pressure
How do metamorphic rocks form? A chang
Based upon composition and texture.
Composition Felsic, intermediate, mafic, ultramafic.
Texture - Fine (aphanitic), coarse (phaneritic).
Glassy igneous rocks.
Obsidian Volcanic glass from rapidly cooled
Why does magma form?
Earth is hot inside. Why?
Planetesimal and meteorite accretion.
Radioactive mineral decay.
Partial melting in crust / upper mantle.
Melting is from
The Earth acts like a dipole magnet
Magnetic poles are distinct from geographic poles
Magnetism is strongest at pole, weakest at the equator
Iron rich minerals record the strength & orientation of magnetic poles
The size, shape, and arrangement of the minerals.
Glassy Made of solid glass or glass shards.
Interlocking crystals Minerals that fit like jigsaw pieces.
Fragmental Pieces of pre-existing rocks.
Texture directly reflects ma
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
loose particles of minerals, rocks, and hard parts of organisms
1. clastic sediments: broken pieces of preexisting rocks
2. bioclastic sediments: hard parts of organisms
3. chemical sediments form by precipitation
Marginal marine environments
Beach and barrier island
Estuarine and lagoonal
Mostly siliciclastic sediments
Rocks whose minerals have been transformed by heat and pressure
Formation of new minerals
Change in crystal structure
Change in mineral composition
Metamorphic Rock Types
Two major subdivisions
Density: mass per unit volume of the mineral
Specific gravity is the ratio between the wt of a volume of a mineral and the wt of
an equal volume of water at 4oC, e.g.,
Sp. gr. Of quartz is said to be 2.65 because 1 cm 3 of quartz is 2
How Minerals Form
Crystals can solidify from a melt, freezing from hot liquid rock, forming igneous
Crystals can also form through solid-state diffusion, in which new crystals are
formed from the atoms that were present in a preexisting mineral. Move
(T or F) A fact in science is any observation proven to be true by repeated testing.
(T or F) Louisianas coastal wetlands are being lost due in part to manmade levees.
(T or F) Science can answer the question of whether to allow
Volcanic in nature
Form when magma or lava cool to a solid form, either glass or masses of tightly
inter-grown mineral crystals. The crystals are large if they had a long time to grow in
a slowly cooling magma, and they are small if th