OTHER IRREGULAR VERBS
(aux verb=to have)
soy / eres / es / somos / sois / son
estoy / ests / est / estamos / estis / estn
voy / vas /va / vamos / vais / van
doy / das / da / damos /
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
The subjunctive mood is used to refer to events or conditions that are subjective in relation to the
speakers reality or experience. It usually deals with possibilities or subjective reactions, rather than
with established facts. Beca
averige / averiges / averige / averigemos /
averigis / averigen
3. Stem Changing Verbs
Verbs, which are stem changing verbs in the present indicative for ar and er conjugations, are also
stem changing in the present subj
POR VERSUS PARA
Por and para can both mean for in English. In general, por may refer to a reason (why? = por qu?) or
cause for having done something. Para is used to express a future action, a goal, a purpose, a
destination, or a use.
USES OF POR
Estoy mirndolas. (attached to the end)
He estado mirando las revistas.
I am looking at them.
I have been looking at
Las he estado mirando. (directly before)
I have been looking at them.
He estado mirndolas. (attached to the end) I have been
USES OF THE IMPERFECT
The imperfect is used if the on going or habitual nature of the action is stressed, with no reference to
Carlos era estudiante.
Jos escriba las cartas.
Carlos was (used to be) a studen
Because they are famous authors, they are very much admired.
Por estar un poco cansada ella tomar una siesta
Because she is a little tired, she will take a nap.
Here are some other common expressions with por:
palabra por palabra
COMPARISONS OF EQUALITY
tanto (a, os, as)
adjetivo / adverbio +
adjective / adverb
persona o cosa
person or thing
Jorge es tan romntico como Luis. Jorge is as romantic as Luis.
DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
USES OF DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS
Direct object pronouns are used when a person or thing receives the action of the verb directly. These
pronouns answer the question what? or who? in relation to the
Jos y Carlos son amigos mos.
Carmen es una amiga ma.
Carmen y Mara son amigas mas.
Jos and Carlos are friends of mine.
Carmen is a friend of mine.
Carmen and Mara are friends of mine.
Whenever a noun is modified by an adjective or an a
l, ella, Ud.
ellos, ellas, Uds.
USES OF ESTAR
Estar is used to tell the location of something.
El libro est en la mesa.
Juan est en Espaa.
The book is on the table.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
The present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb haber (conjugated
below in the present indicative) + past participle (regular or irregular form).
haber (present tense)
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE WITH COMMANDS
The present subjunctive form is used to express affirmative and negative Ud., Uds.; affirmative nosotros
commands (one exception is the verb ir that requires the indicative) and negative nosotros command. It
is also used