b. loss of autonomy
c. loss of liberty
d. all of the above
14. When new prisoners enter prison, they learn the inmates subculture through a process called
c. rule school
d. prison argot
15. When a prisoner is _, they are
25. Research done in the 2000s have lead criminologists such as Samuel Walker to conclude that
the U.S. criminal justice system is:
b. not lenient.
c. similar to criminal justice systems in other democracies.
d. Too big to measure accurately.
14. Which of the following statements about plea bargaining is TRUE?
a. There are two major types of plea bargains: direct and indirect.
b. A major criticism of plea bargaining is that it punishes offenders too severely.
c. Plea bargaining may be the best
Sample Exam 4 Questions
1. Ancient societies did not have prisons. They used other forms of punishment such as:
a. public humiliation
b. corporal punishment
d. all of the above
2. In colonial America, the primary form
Sample Exam 3 Questions
1. The _ is the first step in criminal proceedings.
c. grand jury
d. preliminary hearing
2. Gideon vs. Wainright reversed _ and made states provide legal counsel to
13. According to research done for the National Institute of Justice, crime cost the United States
approximately _ billion dollars per year in the early 1990s.
14. Violent victimizations _ as household income increases.
Sample Exam 1 Questions
1. In criminal justice the sociological perspective is important because of its:
a. uncontested explanation of crime and crime causation.
b. debunking motif.
c. attention to demographics and stratification.
21. Manslaughter is defined as:
a. willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing
b. killings committed without malice aforethought
c. death caused by negligence or reckless behavior
d. homicide that occurs during the commission of a felony
22. Murder is d
Sample Exam 2 Questions
1. During the 11th and 12th centuries, England developed a system of common law that consists
of a combination of _.
a. legislative statutes
b. royal decisions
c. judicial rulings
d. local values and mores
25. In the 1980s, the _ Commission found that police officers provided assistance
and protection to narcotics organizations in exchange for payoffs.
26. Carter and Stephens found that _ was the on-duty drug of