very old rocks show no signs of being oxidized (i.e., formed in the presence of oxygen, which
commonly results in a reddish colouration due to the oxidation of iron).
Sometime in the period between about 4 billion and 3.5 billion years ago primitive lif
The world's best-known deserts lie in a belt 10-15 degrees centered at latitude
of 30 degree (North and South).
Some of the world's deserts are the result of the rain shadow effect of mountain
The Basin and Range province is
What is geology?
- the study of the earth, its processes its minerals, its natural resources, its
history and its effect on humans and life in general
- everything related to the earth
- geo = earth
Who needs geology?
What is a mineral?
- naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, specific crystalline structure, definite
What is the difference between a rock and mineral?
- rock is made of minerals but minerals are not made of rocks
- Mohs sca
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped pile of sediment that forms where a
stream emerges from a narrow mountain canyon.
A stream can lengthen its valley by headward erosion.
A bar in a river channel is a ridge of sedim
- changes, shape and orientation of rocks
- structure- studying the shape and orientation of rocks and the forces that
make the changes in rocks
- stress: pressure o compressive
sufficiently to separate parent isotopes from daughter isotopes. In the case of 40K-40Ar, for
example, an igneous rock will have no 40Ar at the time of its formation, and hence any 40Ar
found in it can be assumed to be derived from the decay of 40K.
B2) Non-silicate Minerals
A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid with a definite composition and a regular
internal crystal structure.
atoms are arranged in a consistent, regular and repeating three-dimensional
must have a specific
B1) Atomic Chemistry and Bonding
All matter is made up of atoms, and all atoms are made up of three main particles known as
protons, neutrons and electrons. As summarized in the following table, protons are positively
charged, neutrons are uncharged and e
Geology 111 Discovering Planet Earth
A1) Early History of the Earth
The earth and the rest of the solar system were formed about 4.57 billion years ago from an
enormous cloud of fragments of both icy and rocky material which was produced from the
In the mineral pyroxene silica tetrahedra are linked together in a single chain, where one oxygen
from each tetrahedron is shared with the adjacent tetrahedron. The result is that the oxygen to
silicon ratio is lower than in olivine, (3:1 instead of 4:1
Oxide minerals have oxygen as their anion, but they exclude those with oxygen complexes such
as carbonate (CO3), sulphate (SO4), silicate (SiO2) etc. The most important oxides are the iron
oxides hematite and magnetite. Both of these are important ores
early evening of December, 31st. The most recent glacial ice melted back from this part of
British Columbia around 11:58 PM, and the first people arrived in this area around 11:59
PM. The first Europeans arrived on this coast about 250 years ago, which
1. What is the electrical charge on a proton? A neutron? An electron? What are their relative
2. Explain how the need for an atom's outer orbit to be filled with electrons contributes to
3. Why are helium and neon descr