Psychology Chapter 1 Study Guide
Psychology derived from philosophers
1800s, first psychological experiment, first psychology as science
o Wilhelm Wundt in 1897
Dropping a ball and having people press a key when they heard it
1. Carefully measured obser
Psychology Chapter 3 Study Guide
Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Dual track mind good so that we do not have to think about everything we do at once
Conscious our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing, deliberate
Psychology Chapter 4 Study Guide
Behavior genetics study how heredity and environment contribute to human differences
The building blocks of heredity and development
Direct the assembly of proteins that build the body
This genetic protein assembl
Psychology Chapter 2 Study Guide
Bio-psychosocial biology is involved with everything
The study of bumps on the skull and their relationship to mental abilities and
Measured bumps and depressions
o Yielded the idea that diffe
Psychology Chapter 8 Study Guide
Memory refers to the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and
retrieval of information and skills
How Memory Works
1. Encoding: getting information into you
Psychology Chapter 10 Study Guide
Intelligence can be defined as whatever intelligence tests measure
- Generate scores: allows us to compare individuals
- Your college entrance test measures how good you are at scoring well on that test
CHAPTER 8 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
- Thinking, language, and intelligence are often studied under the larger topic of cognition (mental
activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge).
CHAPTER 15 Therapy
- Psychotherapy: techniques employed to
improve psychological functioning and
promote adjustment to life.
1. TALK-INSIGHT THERAPIES personal
understanding; variety of therapies seeking
to improve psychological functioning by
CHAPTER 4 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
Sensation is the process of receiving, converting, and transmitting raw sensory information from the external
and internal environments to the brain and perception is the process of selecting, org
CHAPTERS 9/10 Life Span Development
1. STUDYING DEVELOPMENT
- Developmental psychology: study of agerelated changes in behavior and mental
processes from conception to death.
Three key theoretical debates in human
- Nature vs nurture: since t
What is psychopathology? What is abnormal psychology?
Study of mental illnesses
How is psychological disorder defined?
-Mental illness: ongoing patterns of thinking, feeling, and or acting that
causes stress, deviates from the norm, disrupts functio
CH 9 Study Guide
What is cognition?
Manipulating and transforming information
Thinking, knowing, remembering, communicating
What do cognitive psychologists study?
Focus on the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,
remembering, and communi
CH 11 STUDY GUIDE
What is motivation?
The study of why
Need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it to a goal
What are the theories of motivation we covered and how do they explain motivation?
Instinct theory: all motivations come from instinc
CH 5 Study Guide
What do developmental psychologists study?
Physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes occurring over peoples lifespan
What are reflexes?
Automatic reactions and responses
Unlearned and simple (grasping, sucking, stepping)
CHAPTER 16 Social Psychology
Social psychology is the study of how other people influence our thought, feelings, and
Attribution is an explanation for the cause of behaviors or events. To determine the cause,
we first decide whether the behavior
CHAPTER 7 Memory
1. NATURE OF MEMORY
Memory: internal record or representation of some prior event or experience. Memory is a constructive
process, in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed, stored, and retrieved.
CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders
1. STUDYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
- Abnormal behavior: patters of emotion,
thought, and action considered pathological for
one or more of four reasons (pic on the right).
- Behavior varies along a continuum. Often an
CHAPTER 13 Personality unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings,
1. TRAIT THEORIES
- Traits: relatively stable personal characteristics used to describe someone.
The key figures of this theory are:
- Early trait theorists Al
CHAPTER 2 NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
NEURAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR
Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that studies how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental
Our brain and nervous system consists of neurons, cells
CHAPTER 6 Learning
- Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or
experience (excludes situational variables and maturational variables).
- Conditioning: process of learning associations between environm
CHAPTER 11 Gender and Human Sexuality
1. SEX AND GENDER
- Sex: biological male or female sex organs including
chromosomal sex; also sexual behavior.
- Gender: psychological and sociocultural meanings added to
- Gender identity: self-identi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLODY AND ITS RESEARCH METHODS
Psychology if the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. It focuses on critical thinking process of
objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing and synthesiz
Psychology Chapter 12 Class Notes
Emotion, Stress, and Health
Emotion a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation
o Yelling, accelerating
o Sweat, pounding heart
o Thoughts, feelings
CH 8 Study Guide
What is memory?
Retention of information over time
What basic processes are involved?
Encoding: getting information into memory
Storage: holding information in memory
Retrieval: finding information in memory
What is automatic processin
Ch 13 Study Guide
What is social psychology?
How we think about, influence, and relate to one another
What are attributions? Dispositional/internal attributions? Situational/external
o Attributions: inferences about the causes of behavior
Chapter 13: Life-Span Development
Developmental Psychology: studies how humans change across the lifespan
Cradle to grave
Two Core Issues:
1. Interaction of nature (maturation) and nuture (learning and
2. Continuous vs. discontinuous change
Chapter 6: Memory
Definition of Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
For a sound, image, or thought to return to the mind when it is no longer present, it must be
presented again in the mind
Mental Representation: a ment
Chapter 5: Learning
Definition of Learning: An enduring change in the way an organism responds
based on its experience
All about prediction
Predicting the future from past experience and using these predictions to
Three Major Assumptions of
Chapter 6: Part One: Memory
Memory: the process by which we encode, store and retrieve information
- For a sound, image, etc. to return to mind when it is no longer present, it has to be
re-presented in the mind
Mental Representation: a mental mode
Chapter 1: The Study of Mental Processes and Behavior
The scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior that lies at the
intersection of biology and culture
Psychological processes reflect the influence of:
1. The biological process