Antigen Recognition in the Adaptive Immune System
Specific antigen recognition is the task of two structurally similar types of cell surface
receptors of lymphocytes: membrane-bound antibodies on B cells and T cell receptors
(TCRs) on T lymphocytes.
Glossary for Lecture 7.
intracellular signaling pathways
protein kinases- the enzymes that associate with receptors
protein phosphorylation- protein kinases attach phosphate groups to a protein in the
Monocytes and macrophages-phagocytes that immediately recognize pathogen presence
Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils)
Dendritic cells (conventional dendritic cells (cDCs)-use antigen as a bridge btw innate and
B and T lymphocytes-main players in adaptive immunity and teir antibodies can
recognize any foreign mol
B-cell receptors (BCRs)-B cells that have membrane bound immunoglobulins as
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgM, IgG-five classes of immunoglobulins
Defensins, cathelicidiins, and histatins are activated by proteolysis to
release an amphipathic antimicrobial peptide
- - and -defensins-cationic peptides, synthesized from propeptides
alpha-defensins mature in leukocytes and stored in primary g
Glossary for Lecture 6.
Antigen processing- The intracellular degradation of foreign proteins into peptides that
can bind to MHC molecules for presentation to T cells. All protein antigens must be
processed into peptides before they can be presented by MH
Study Guide for Immunology
This is a general guide. I recommend answering the questions at the end of the chapters as an
assessment of your knowledge.
1. Know the terms/vocabulary which were defined in the book (bold) and/or in the lecture
Introduction to the Immune System
Immunity - resistance to disease, specifically infectious disease
Immune System the collection of cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate resistance to
Immune Response coordinated reaction of the immune syst
Innate Immunity protection against infections that relies on mechanisms that exist before
infection, are capable of rapid responses to microbes, and react in essentially the same way to
The innate immune system includes
Immunological Tolerance and Autoimmunity Review Questions
1. What is immunological tolerance? Why is it important?
Immunological tolerance is the unresponsiveness to self antigens. It is a lack of
response to antigens that is induced by exposure of lymph
Immune Responses Against Tumors and Transplants Review Questions
1. What are the types of tumor antigens that the immune system reacts against? What is the
evidence that tumor rejection is an immunologic phenomenon?
Tumor antigens that are recognized by
Hypersensitivity Question Notes
1. What types of antigens may induce immune responses that cause
Hypersensitivity reactions may arise from uncontrolled or abnormal responses to
foreign antigens or autoimmune resp
Humoral Immune Responses Review Questions
1. What are the signals that induce B cell responses to protein antigens and polysaccharide
Humoral immune responses to a protein antigen are initiated by binding of the protein
to specific Ig receptors
Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity
1. What regions of antibody molecules are involved in the functions of antibodies?
The antigen-binding (Fab) regions are used to bind to and block the harmful effects of
microbes and toxins. In other words the Fab
Antigen Capture and Presentation to Lymphocytes
Adaptive immune responses are initiated when the antigen receptors of lymphocytes
The antigen receptors of B lymphocytes namely, membrane-bound antibodies can
Glossary for Lecture 5.
Gene rearrangementsdeveloping lymphocyte by somatic DNA recombination to form a
complete V-region sequence, a mechanism known generally as gene rearrangement.
somatic recombination-gene rearrangement of a complete V-regions