Operant Conditioning and Extinction
Objectives Be able to:
Identify the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner the study of Learning
Identify examples of positive and negative reinforcement and punishment
Describe procedural variations of extinction
Single Subject Design
Define internal and external validity within psychology experiments.
Describe the difference between correlation and causation
Name the advantages of single subject designs in studying individual behavior relative to
Be able to describe the respondent conditioning paradigm (preparation)
Be able to identify key elements of respondent conditioning in examples
Describe pairing procedures and identify which are most effective for produci
Define dependent, independent, and confounding variables and identify them in examples
Dependent Variable (DV): The Behavior of the participant or the subject that may
change as a result of the treatment or IV
Psychology and Science
What are the assumptions of science?
Realism: Objects and events exist outside of our perception of them
Determinism: Events have a preceding cause
Regularity: Phenomena exist in recurring patterns that conform with universal law
Positive and Negative Punishment
Define Positive and Negative Punishment
Punishment teaches us not to repeat behaviors that cause us harm, pain,
discomfort, or loss of reinforcers
Negative Punishment is the removal of reinforcers
Define time out and respo
Measurement of Behavior
1. Define dependent, independent, and confounding variables and identify them in
2. Describe the characteristics of good measurement systems
3. Distinguish between direct and indirect measurement
Lubinski & Thompson (1987)
1.) Provide a definition of private events.
Something observable to only one person. Things that go on inside you. Behaviorists
just treat these things like other forms of behavior. They do not totally ignore
Learning of Schedule Parameters
Reinforcement is delivered after a fixed number of responses.
Fixed ratio 5 (FR 5) = every 5th response results in reinforcement
Reinforcement is delivered after a variable number of responses.
Learning: A Natural Science Approach
1. What are the assumptions of science?
2. What are the characteristics of science?
3. What the goals of science?
4. How does a behavioral approach to learning share the characteristics of science?
Effects of Reinforcement
Identify examples of each when provided with scenarios
Be able to give an exampl
Contributions of Thorndike and Skinner in the Study
Thorndike and Cat Puzzle Box
A behavior will be acquired or not based upon the
consequences that behavior has had in the past