Two hypotheses for how the
three domains of life are related.
Phylogeny of Eukaryota (2011)
Phylogeny of Metazoa
The tree is printed in a lighter color to indicate that it should be
interpreted with caution because it
BIO 318 EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE
What are the 2 big purposes of the kidney?
1. Blood regulation
2. Water management
How many times does blood pass through our - 60x
kidneys each day?
When the blood gets to the kidney, the first
capillary bed is th
Constraints on the Bauplan
- e.g., surface-to-volume ratios, complex organ structures
- e.g., rate & number of cell divisions, cell migration
- interconnectedness and interdepence of different orga
Solomon et al., 1996
Purves et al., 1992
no specialized respiratory, circulatory, excretory organs
and life cycles
Anatomy of a sponge
Detail of a
Choanocyte chamber of Spongionella
Harrison & De Vos, 1991
General organization of
But first, a word about asexual reproduction
Brusca & Brusca, Fig. 3.33:
Common asexual reproductive processes
Generalized metazoan life cycle and reproductive systems
Brusca & Brusca, Fig. 3.35:
The protists are unicellular eukaryotes. (The very first)
Animal-like protists are "protozoans"
many years protozoans where in 4 categories
protozoans serve as a major food
Exam 3 Study Guide
Where is the pericardial sac and what is its
What is the space between the pericardial sac
and heart called?
What are the 3 layers of the heart and where
are they found?
It surrounds the heart. Its job is to nestle and
secure the h