9. A Climates Tropical
All months have a mean temperature > 65F (18C)
Controlled by equatorial and tropical air masses
Small annual temperature range. Why?
Af Tropical Rain Forest Climates
No dry season at all. Why?
Precipitation is related
11. C Climates Subtropical or
Mild winters average temperature of coldest month < 65F, but > 27F
Humid Subtropical Climates Cfa
Summers are like the Tropics hot and sultry
Winters are mild, but much colder than Tropics
No real precipitation se
13. E Climates Polar
Average temperature of the warmest month < 50C (10C)
Winters are virtually perpetual night. Why?
Low summer temps despite long days. Why?
Annual temperature ranges are still pretty large
Precipitation generally < 10 inches. Why?
7. Ocean Currents
Wind is the major driving force of ocean currents
In general, warm currents along East Coasts and cold currents are
along west coasts. Why?
Cold currents enhance stability and desert-like conditions. Why?
Other Ocean Cir
12. D Climates Microthermal
Midlatitude climates with severe winters average temperature of coldest month <
27F, and average temperature of warmest month > 50F
Dominated by the Polar Front
35 - 70 latitude
Humid Continental Climates - Dfa or Dwa
6. Geography of Pressure and
Planetary circulation is driven by the surface pressure patterns
0 - Equatorial Trough (or the ITCZ)
25-30 - the Subtropical High - subsidence and divergent flow
50-60 - the Sub-polar Low (Polar
5. General Circulation of the
What do we mean by General Circulation?
Naming convention for winds
In the real world, air near equator rises adiabatically. Why?
After it rises, it mo
8. Climate Classification
What determines a climate type?
Why classify climates?
Empiric vs. Genetic Classification Systems
The Kppen Method of climate classification
The most widely-accepted classification system. Why?
The Kppen System
10. B Climates Arid/Semi-Arid
Dry climate: annual precipitation < PE
So, dryness is a function of both precipitation and temperature (and
Very high precipitation variability
True Desert Climates BW