1 February 2017: Overview of gene structure and expression
This has a lot more detail than we need, but a little extra detail does not hurt.
Important point: Genes are modular in the sense that pieces can be used outside the context of
the original gene.
23 January 2017 Types of DNA and why this is important
TYPES OF DNA: I like to think that there are four different kinds, although one could certainly
argue about this. In terms of understanding molecular biology, it really helps to understand the
Factors influencing transitions between single and double-stranded molecules.
MELTING, DENATURING, DISSOCIATING are different words for the same thing: the two
strands of DNA become separated from each other.
Because the two strands of DNA are held togeth
Recombinant DNA: What and Why?
Mix and match parts of DNA from different
genes, cells, organisms: new molecules
Propagate the new molecules inside cells
Modify the genomes of cells and organisms
Produce large quantities of important proteins
Molecular Bio Exam II Notes
o Spliced to remove introns
o 7 meG on 5 end
o May have 2O methyl cap
o Extra modifications: m6A
o Can bind micro RNAs that regulate translation and/or stability
Small RNAs involved in Splicing
NUCLEIC ACID BIOCHEMISTRY
See handout. The components of DNA include phosphate; the sugar, deoxyribose; and bases.
The phosphates are part of the phosphodiester backbone. Importantly, the phosphate groups
within DNA are negatively charged at cellular pH.
Active Learning Workshops
Workshop: DNA & RNA Structure
In this workshop you will examine the structures of the two types of nucleic acids found in cells, DNA
and RNA, from their nucleotide building blocks to their fully
3 February 2017
MAMMALIAN GENE TRANSFER
CELLS to which we might want to add DNA
Cell lines: Mammalian cells that are isolated directly from individuals generally do not
grow well (or at all) in culture. At best, they grow for a few weeks and then stop. It
Practice for polarity and writing primers, human hemoglobin beta chain
Chapter 4 Cell Membrane Transport
Plasma Membrane Review
Separate ICF / ECF
Allow exchange of materials between ICF / ECF such as obtaining O2
and nutrients and getting rid of waste products
Property of a Membrane
o S_ permeable.
Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology
Introduction to Physiology
Four themes of Physiology
What is Human Physiology?
Physiology is the study of how normal body works to maintain life.
Physiology is an integrative discipline that utilizes biology, chemist
Chapter 4: Cell Membrane Transport
4.1 Factors Affecting the Direction of Transport
The energy difference in the molecules on the two sides of the membrane determines the
direction of spontaneous transport (passive transport) and the need for energy to mo
1. List the sequence of events that links an action potential on the surface of a muscle
cell to contraction. A complete answer includes all relevant proteins and cellular
structure from the time AFTER the generation of an action potential up to the
Chapter 5: Chemical Messengers
(Read pg. 125-146 all)
Compare the three major functional classes of chemical messengers
(paracrines, neurotransmitters, and hormones) with respect to the cell
that releases them and the ways the messenger g
The net reaction of complete glucose oxidation: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
2 half reactions:
1. C6H12O6 + 6H2O 6CO2 + 24H+ + 24e This reaction is carried out through glycolysis and the TCA cycle.
2. 6O2 + 24H+ + 24e- 12 H2O
12 pairs of
Overview of Glucose Metabolism
Comparison of the
pathways of glycolysis
General Principles of Metabolic Pathways
Anabolic and catabolic pathways proceed via different pathways.
Different regulatory enzymes were evolved to a
Anabolism versus Catabolism
Anabolism: The synthesis of complex
molecules from simple precursors.
Endergonic - requires input of energy.
Reductive - requires input of electron.
Catabolism: Degradation of nutrients and
other complex molecules to relative
Overview of oxidative fuel metabolism
General Features of Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is a cyclic
pathway for complete oxidation of carbon skeletons from carbohydrate, fatty acids
Chapter 14 (4th Edition) problems assigned: 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 17, 19, 20, 26, 27, 28, 30.
Ions of Cd and Hg, which are below Zn in the periodic table, take the place of Zn2+ ions that serve as cofactors for essential
The Role of Specific Amino Acids in the Peptide Hormone
Glucagon in Receptor Binding and Signal Transduction
Amino acid side chains important in glucagon binding and signal transduction are identified.
Amino acid st
BIOS4113 and CHEM4511 BIOCHEMISTRY II Spring 2017
Instructor: Zhengchang Liu, Ph.D.
Class Meeting Times: Tu Th 9:30AM-10:45AM
Class Meeting Location: Science Building 2120
Office Hours: Monday: 10:00AM-12:00PM; Tu Th 11AM-1PM
Office: Bio. Sci. Bldg. Rm. 2
Chapter 21 (4th Edition) problems assigned: 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 15, 17, 19, 22, and 25.
An individual consuming a high-protein diet uses amino acids as metabolic fuels. As the amino
acid skeletons are converted to glucogenic or ketog
Chapter 16 (4th Edition) problems assigned: 3, 4, 6, 10, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, and 22.
A defect in G6P transport would have the symptoms of glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency: accumulation of glycogen
Chapter 20 (4th Edition) problems assigned: 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, 19, 22, and 23,
Answers to even-numbered questions:
4. (a) Perilipin likely resembles the water-soluble apolipoproteins, since it is able to interact with the phospholipid surf
Bios 1063 Chapter 3-Plants and Fungi
Plants began colonizing land about 475 million years ago.
Remember protists-green algae evolved around 1 billion years ago.
In order for plants to colonize land, they needed certain adaptations.
A. Terrestrial Adapt
Tarsiers largest eyes of all the mammals
They live in islands of Southeast Asia Philippines. Borneo, Sumatra
Did not survive well in captivity or as pets
They eat mostly insects but sometimes enjoy birds, crabs, snakes, bats
Snakes, lizards, owls
Slow lorises are a group of several species of strepsirrhine primates which make up the genus
Slow Loris use scent making for communication & also detection of prey
They use their large eyes to see in the dark
o Eat food from small
Test 1 A and P
20 multiple choice
4 true false
8 short answers
5 slightly longer short answers
Define osmotic pressure
Describe anatomical position why is it necessary
List 2 characteristics of stem ce
Bios 1083 Chapters 43 Lymphatic System
1. Lymphatic System:
a. Lymphatic System-One way system lymph fluid-lymphatic capillaries
drain excess interstitial fluid from extracellular spaces- lymphatic vesselslymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, right lymphatic du