Sociology Exam 1
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-the study of human society
-asking questions about things typically
taken for granted
- reconsidering your assumptions in order
to better understand the world ar
Motivation and Emotion (Chapter 9)
Motivation - An inner state (either a need or desire) that energizes and directs
us toward specific behaviors, feelings, & thoughts (Why we do what we do)
Two approaches to studying motivation
Physiological (and cul
CHAPTER 1: History and Methods
Behavior vs. Mental processes
Behavior - everything we do that can be directly observed
Mental processes - the thoughts, feelings, and motives that people
experience privately but that cannot be observed directly.
How does sensation travel through the central nervous system, and why
are some sensations ignored?
-The way into the brain is through the sensory organs and the process of sensation.
-Sensation occurs when special receptors in the sense organs the eye
What are the 3 processes of memory?
-Encoding, storage, and retrieval
What is encoding?
-The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert
that information into a form that is usable in the brains storage systems.
1.1What defines psychology as a field of study, and what are psychologys four
-Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
-Behavior incudes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking,
-Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural
stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
-A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response.
Psyc 270 Examination 2 Study Guide
Format of exam: Multiple choice items, True/False items
Chapter 4: Individual Psychology
For the test:
- Felt minus felt plus
o The motive is to better ourselves to a better way of life
o Oprah is a
1. Give examples of how question wording can change the results of a survey or poll.
-For this class, both survey and polls are methods of posing questions to people on the phone,
interview, or online, etc. Questions should restrict answers in o
1. Distinguish measured from manipulated variables in a study.
-manipulated (IV), measured (DV)
2. Identify an experiment's independent, dependent, and control variables.
-independent: what is being manipulated (usually on x-axis, comes first i
Psychology notes 2/24/17
Reinforcement and Punishment
Trial and error reward and punishment
Ex. Big bang theory giving chocolate to stay quiet, proper behavior
-Use reinforcement to increase a behavior.
- Use punishme
Thinking is manipulating mental representations of objects we encounter in our
In thinking, we use analogical representations, which usually correspond to
images, and symbolic representations, which usually correspond to wor
Our moment to moment subjective experience
A state of awareness
Consciousness as alertness:
1. the reticular formation is an important brain area for controlling alertness
2. varying states of alertness provide advantage for.
Interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of psychological and other factors on the
The biological response to stress changes the activity of the immune system, increasing the
Practice Quiz # 1
Why isnt there much cumulative culture among chimpanzees?
A. Chimpanzees have relatively poor memories.
B. Chimpanzees dont have skilled problem-solving skills.
C. Chimpanzees arent very good at imitative learning.
Adam Fleischman, Grace McDermott, Nick Rinde
Culture shock refers to a situation when a group of peoples entering a different
culture encounter a feeling of confusion and experience disorientation. When people lose
International Journal of Psychological Studies
Analysis of Impact of Culture Shock on Individual Psychology
International Communications Department, University of Nottingham Ningbo
199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China
Have you experienced culture shock?
What is culture shock?
o Culture shock refers to a situation when a group of peoples entering a
different culture encounter a feeling of confusion and experience
o When p
Quiz #3: Ch. 14, 13, 12.
1. Jason gets excited every time he walks into his physics class. However, Jason has never really
liked science, so he does not think that his excitement is due to the class. Instead, he decides that he
must be attracted to his la
Psych Test Review
Suggested that most people experience an inferiority complex, which later
results in a will-to-power that could be positive or negative.
Maslows self-actualization: In born drive to develop all of ones tal
With advances in brain imaging technologies such as Structural MRI, Functional MRI
(fMRI) our overall picture on human brain development has radically changed in the last ten
years or so. The brain continues to devel
Fractals in Film
Study Part Two
Spielberger State Anxiety Scale (STAS)
Personality: The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are
relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances.
Your sense of self also includes your physical body and your conscious awaren
People can make accurate judgments based on only a few seconds of observation.
o Ambady and Rosenthal refer to such quick views as thin slices of behavior.
One of the first things we usually notice about another person is the face.
Health psychology integrates research on health and on psychology.
Well-being is a positive state in which we feel our best. To achieve this state, we need to
strive for optimal health and life satisfaction.
o Psychologists who study
Memory is the nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain information and skills.
o Not all experiences are equally likely to be remembered.
o Our memories are often incomplete, biased, and distorted.
o Memories are not truth, but o
Motivation is activatingit stimulates us to do something.
Motivation is directiveit guides our behavior toward meeting specific goals or needs.
Motivation helps us sustain our behavior until we achieve our goals or satisfy our needs.
Learning is a change in behavior that results from experiences.
o It makes possible our basic abilities (such as walking and speaking) and our
complex ones (such as flying airplanes, performing surgery, or maintaining
Developmental psychology explores the changes that occur as we grow, starting in the
prenatal period and continuing through the other stages of our lives.
o Prenatal Period: From the time of conception until birth.
o Developmental chan
The nervous system is a network of billions of cells in the brain and the body.
o This system is responsible for all aspects of what we feel, think, and do.
o The nervous system has three basic functions: (1) receive sensory input from