adverse childhood experiences: abuse, neglect, and violent experiences that contribute to childhood trauma

athletic coach style of parenting: the rules for behavior are consistent and objective and presented in that way. The parent’s role is to provide guidance while the child learns first hand how to handle these situations

authoritarian parenting: the traditional model of parenting in which parents make the rules and children are expected to be obedient

authoritative parenting: appropriately strict, reasonable, and affectionate. They are willing to negotiate when appropriate

false self-training: holding a child to adult standards while denying the child’s developmental needs

martyr parent: a parent who will do anything for the child, even tasks that the child should do independently, may later use what they have done for the child to invoke guilt and compliance

pal parent: wants to be the child’s friend and focuses on being entertaining and fun

permissive parenting: involves being a friend to a child rather than an authority figure. Children are allowed to make their own rules and determine their own activities

police officer/drill sergeant parent: focuses primarily on making sure that the child is obedient and that the parent has full control of the child

teacher-counselor parent: pays much attention to expert advice on parenting and believes that as long as all of the steps are followed, the parent can rear a perfect child

toxic stress: excessive stress that exceeds a child’s ability to cope, especially in the absence of supportive caregiving from adults

uninvolved parenting: parents who are disengaged from their children, do not make demands on their children, and are non-responsive

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