attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a neurological and behavioral disorder in which a person has difficulty staying on task, screening out distractions, and inhibiting behavioral outbursts

autism or autism spectrum disorder: a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior

dyslexia: a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities

ecological systems model: Brofenbrenner's theory that we all belong to many communities and are influenced in the context of multiple environments, also known as ecological systems; organized into five levels of external influence: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem

hidden curriculum: cultural values, concepts, behaviors and roles that are part of the school experience but are not part of the formal curriculum

home state: occurs when parents or siblings visit the school. Children in this state may enjoy special privileges such as going home early or being exempt from certain school rules in the mother's presence, or it can be difficult if the parent is there to discuss trouble at school with a staff member

middle school: a school for children in the grades between elementary school and high school. Middle school usually begins with grade 6 and ends with grade 8

sanctity state: a time in which the child is contemplative, quiet, or prayerful. It is often only a very brief part of the day

secondary education: the period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college). It usually occurs from about ages 12 to 18, although there is some variation by school and by nation

street corner state: state in which the child is playful, energetic, excited, and expresses personal opinions, feelings, and beliefs

student state: this state is one in which the student focuses on a task or tries to stay focused on a task, is passive, compliant, and often frustrated

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