continuous development: the idea that development is a progressive and cumulative process, gradually improving on existing skills

cohort: a group of people who are born at roughly the same period in a particular society. Cohorts share histories and contexts for living

culture: blueprint or guideline shared by a group of people that specifies how to live; passed down from generation to generation; learned from parents and others

cycle of poverty: when families with ow social mobility become trapped in poverty for generations

discontinuous development: idea that development takes place in unique stages and occurs at specific times or ages

life chances: someone’s access to marketplace resources

lifespan perspective: an approach to studying development which emphasizes that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, contextual, and multidisciplinary

nature: the influences of biology and genetics on behavior

non-normative influences: unpredictable influences not tied to a certain developmental time, personally or historical period

normative age-graded influences: biological and environmental factors that have a strong correlation with chronological age

normative history-graded influences: influences associated with a specific time period that define the broader bio-cultural context in which an individual develops

nurture: environmental, social, and cultural influences of behavior

poverty: the state of not having access to material resources, wealth, or income

social mobility: the ability to change one’s economic status in a society

socioeconomic status: a way to identify families and households based on their shared levels of education, income, and occupation

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