Imagine standing on a city street corner. You might be struck by movement everywhere as cars and people go about their business, by the sound of a street musician’s melody or a horn honking in the distance, by the smell of exhaust fumes or of food being sold by a nearby vendor, and by the sensation of hard pavement under your feet.
We rely on our sensory systems to provide important information about our surroundings. We use this information to successfully navigate and interact with our environment so that we can find nourishment, seek shelter, maintain social relationships, and avoid potentially dangerous situations. But while sensory information is critical to our survival, there is so much information available at any given time that we would be overwhelmed if we were forced to attend to all of it. In fact, we are aware of only a fraction of the sensory information taken in by our sensory systems at any given time.
This module will provide an overview of how sensory information is received and processed by the nervous system and how that affects our conscious experience of the world. We begin by learning the distinction between sensation and perception. Then we consider the physical properties of light and sound stimuli, along with an overview of the basic structure and function of the major sensory systems. The module will close with a discussion of a historically important theory of perception called the Gestalt theory. This theory attempts to explain some underlying principles of perception.
Aaron, J. I., Mela, D. J., & Evans, R. E. (1994). The influences of attitudes, beliefs, and label information on perceptions of reduced-fat spread. Appetite, 22, 25–37.
Abraira, V. E., & Ginty, D. D. (2013). The sensory neurons of touch. Neuron, 79, 618–639.
Ayabe-Kanamura, S., Saito, S., Distel, H., Martínez-Gómez, M., & Hudson, R. (1998). Differences and similarities in the perception of everyday odors: A Japanese-German cross-cultural study. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 855, 694–700.
Chen, Q., Deng, H., Brauth, S. E., Ding, L., & Tang, Y. (2012). Reduced performance of prey targeting in pit vipers with contralaterally occluded infrared and visual senses. PloS ONE, 7(5), e34989. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034989
Comfort, A. (1971). Likelihood of human pheromones. Nature, 230, 432–479.
Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., & Wittenbrink, B. (2002). The police officer’s dilemma: Using ethnicity to disambiguate potentially threatening individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1314–1329.
Correll, J., Urland, G. R., & Ito, T. A. (2006). Event-related potentials and the decision to shoot: The role of threat perception and cognitive control. The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 120–128.
Dunkle T. (1982). The sound of silence. Science, 82, 30–33.
Fawcett, S. L., Wang, Y., & Birch, E. E. (2005). The critical period for susceptibility of human stereopsis. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 46, 521–525.
Furlow, F. B. (1996, 2012). The smell of love. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200910/the-smell-love
Galanter, E. (1962). Contemporary Psychophysics. In R. Brown, E.Galanter, E. H. Hess, & G. Mandler (Eds.), New directions in psychology. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Garland, E. L. (2012). Pain processing in the human nervous system: A selective review of nociceptive and biobehavioral pathways. Primary Care, 39, 561–571.
Goolkasian, P. & Woodbury, C. (2010). Priming effects with ambiguous figures. Attention,Perception & Psychophysics, 72, 168–178.
Grothe, B., Pecka, M., & McAlpine, D. (2010). Mechanisms of sound localization in mammals. Physiological Reviews, 90, 983–1012.
Hartline, P. H., Kass, L., & Loop, M. S. (1978). Merging of modalities in the optic tectum: Infrared and visual integration in rattlesnakes. Science, 199, 1225–1229.
Kaiser, P. K. (1997). The joy of visual perception: A web book. Retrieved from http://www.yorku.ca/eye/noframes.htm
Khan, S., & Chang, R. (2013). Anatomy of the vestibular system: A review. NeuroRehabilitation, 32, 437–443.
Kinnamon, S. C., & Vandenbeuch, A. (2009). Receptors and transduction of umami taste stimuli. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1170, 55–59.
Kunst-Wilson, W. R., & Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized. Science, 207, 557–558.
Lackner, J. R., & DiZio, P. (2005). Vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 115–147.
Land, E. H. (1959). Color vision and the natural image. Part 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 45(1), 115–129.
Liem, D. G., Westerbeek, A., Wolterink, S., Kok, F. J., & de Graaf, C. (2004). Sour taste preferences of children relate to preference for novel and intense stimuli. Chemical Senses, 29, 713–720.
Lodovichi, C., & Belluscio, L. (2012). Odorant receptors in the formation of olfactory bulb circuitry. Physiology, 27, 200–212.
Loersch, C., Durso, G. R. O., & Petty, R. E. (2013). Vicissitudes of desire: A matching mechanism for subliminal persuasion. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(5), 624–631.
Maffei, A., Haley, M., & Fontanini, A. (2012). Neural processing of gustatory information in insular circuits. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 22, 709–716.
Milner, A. D., & Goodale, M. A. (2008). Two visual systems re-viewed. Neuropsychological, 46, 774–785.
Mizushige, T., Inoue, K., Fushiki, T. (2007). Why is fat so tasty? Chemical reception of fatty acid on the tongue. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 53, 1–4.
Most, S. B., Simons, D. J., Scholl, B. J., & Chabris, C. F. (2000). Sustained inattentional blindness: The role of location in the detection of unexpected dynamic events. PSYCHE, 6(14).
Nelson, M. R. (2008). The hidden persuaders: Then and now. Journal of Advertising, 37(1), 113–126.
Niimura, Y., & Nei, M. (2007). Extensive gains and losses of olfactory receptor genes in mammalian evolution. PLoS ONE, 2, e708.
Okawa, H., & Sampath, A. P. (2007). Optimization of single-photon response transmission at the rod-to-rod bipolar synapse. Physiology, 22, 279–286.
Payne, B. K. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 181–192.
Payne, B. K., Shimizu, Y., & Jacoby, L. L. (2005). Mental control and visual illusions: Toward explaining race-biased weapon misidentifications. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 36–47.
Peck, M. (2012, July 19). How a movie changed one man’s vision forever. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120719-awoken-from-a-2d-world
Peterson, M. A., & Gibson, B. S. (1994). Must figure-ground organization precede object recognition? An assumption in peril. Psychological Science, 5, 253–259.
Petho, G., & Reeh, P. W. (2012). Sensory and signaling mechanisms of bradykinin, eicosanoids, platelet-activating factor, and nitric oxide in peripheral nociceptors. Physiological Reviews, 92, 1699–1775.
Proske, U. (2006). Kinesthesia: The role of muscle receptors. Muscle & Nerve, 34, 545–558.
Proske, U., & Gandevia, S. C. (2012). The proprioceptive senses: Their roles in signaling body shape, body position and movement, and muscle force. Physiological Reviews, 92, 1651–1697.
Purvis, K., & Haynes, N. B. (1972). The effect of female rat proximity on the reproductive system of male rats. Physiology & Behavior, 9, 401–407.
Radel, R., Sarrazin, P., Legrain, P., & Gobancé, L. (2009). Subliminal priming of motivational orientation in educational settings: Effect on academic performance moderated by mindfulness. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 1–18.
Rauschecker, J. P., & Tian, B. (2000). Mechanisms and streams for processing “what” and “where” in auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 97, 11800–11806.
Renier, L. A., Anurova, I., De Volder, A. G., Carlson, S., VanMeter, J., & Rauschecker, J. P. (2009). Multisensory integration of sounds and vibrotactile stimuli in processing streams for “what” and “where.” Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 10950–10960.
Rensink, R. A. (2004). Visual sensing without seeing. Psychological Science, 15, 27–32.
Rock, I., & Palmer, S. (1990). The legacy of Gestalt psychology. Scientific American, 262, 84–90.
Roper, S. D. (2013). Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory receptors. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 24, 71–79.
Russell, M. J. (1976). Human olfactory communication. Nature, 260, 520–522.
Sachs, B. D. (1997). Erection evoked in male rats by airborne scent from estrous females. Physiology & Behavior, 62, 921–924.
Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovits, M. J. (1963). Cultural differences in the perception of geometric illusions. Science, 139, 769–771.
Segall, M. H., Campbell, D. T., & Herskovits, M. J. (1966). The influence of culture on visual perception. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Segall, M. H., Dasen, P. P., Berry, J. W., & Poortinga, Y. H. (1999). Human behavior in global perspective (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Semaan, M. T., & Megerian, C. A. (2010). Contemporary perspectives on the pathophysiology of Meniere’s disease: implications for treatment. Current opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, 18(5), 392–398.
Shamma, S. (2001). On the role of space and time in auditory processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 340–348.
Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28, 1059–1074.
Spors, H., Albeanu, D. F., Murthy, V. N., Rinberg, D., Uchida, N., Wachowiak, M., & Friedrich, R. W. (2013). Illuminating vertebrate olfactory processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 14102–14108.
Spray, D. C. (1986). Cutaneous temperature receptors. Annual Review of Physiology, 48, 625–638.
Strain, G. M. (2003). How well do dogs and other animals hear? Retrieved from http://www.lsu.edu/deafness/HearingRange.html
Swets, J. A. (1964). Signal detection and recognition by human observers. Psychological Bulletin, 60, 429–441.
Ungerleider, L. G., & Haxby, J. V. (1994). ‘What’ and ‘where’ in the human brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 157–165.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2013). Genetics home reference: Congenital insensitivity to pain. Retrieved from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/congenital-insensitivity-to-pain
Vecera, S. P., & O’Reilly, R. C. (1998). Figure-ground organization and object recognition processes: An interactive account. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 24, 441–462.
Wakakuwa, M., Stavenga, D. G., & Arikawa, K. (2007). Spectral organization of ommatidia in flower-visiting insects. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 83, 27–34.
Weller, A. (1998). Human pheromones: Communication through body odour. Nature, 392, 126–127.
Wells, D. L. (2010). Domestic dogs and human health: An overview. British Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 145–156.
Wolfgang-Kimball, D. (1992). Pheromones in humans: myth or reality?. Retrieved from http://www.anapsid.org/pheromones.html
Wysocki, C. J., & Preti, G. (2004). Facts, fallacies, fears, and frustrations with human pheromones. The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, 281, 1201–1211.
Sensation and Perception _ Introduction to Psychology.pdf
FPM KSG 3103 • Sultan Idris University of Education
Introduction to Psychology- Sensation and Perception - Welcome Notes.docx
SCHOOL OF 967592 • Monash University
Introduction to Other Senses | Introduction to Psychology.pdf
PSY 100 • CUNY Borough of Manhattan Community College
What is the importance of Sensation and Perception in Psychology Term Paper by Pritzie Empress H. BS
PSY 10 • St. Dominic College of Asia
Introduction to Psychology Class notes 4 Sensation (1).ppt
PSY 1101 • United States International University (USIU - Africa)