“Breathe and Release”

This is a short-cut version of systematic de-sensitization appropriate for public speaking preparation.

Cognitive Restructuring (CR)

CR is an internal process through which individuals can deliberately adjust how they perceive an action or experience.

Communication Apprehension

CA is the anxiety resulting from fear of public speaking.


Being conversant is the condition of being able to discuss an issue intelligently with others.

Frame of Reference

A frame of reference refers to the context, viewpoint, or set of presuppositions or of evaluative criteria within which a person's perception and thinking seem always to occur; and which constrains selectively the course and outcome of these activities.

Scrutiny Fear

Anxiety resulting from being in a situation where one is being watched or observed, or where one perceives themselves as being watched, is known as scrutiny fear. This sort of anxiety does not necessarily involve interacting with other people.


State-anxiety is derived from the external situation within which individuals find themselves.

Systematic De-sensitization

Systematic de-sensitization is a multi-stage, therapeutic regimen to help patients deal with phobias through coping mechanisms.


Trait-anxiety is anxiety that is aligned with, or a manifestation of, an individual’s personality.

Licenses and Attributions