Why is it so difficult to break habits—like reaching for your ringing phone even when you shouldn’t, such as when you’re driving? How does a person who has never seen or touched snow in real life develop an understanding of the concept of snow? How do young children acquire the ability to learn language with no formal instruction? Psychologists who study thinking explore questions like these.
Cognitive psychologists also study intelligence. What is intelligence, and how does it vary from person to person? Are “street smarts” a kind of intelligence, and if so, how do they relate to other types of intelligence? What does an IQ test really measure? These questions and more will be explored in this chapter as you study thinking and intelligence.
In other chapters, we discussed the cognitive processes of perception, learning, and memory. In this chapter, we will focus on high-level cognitive processes. As a part of this discussion, we will consider thinking and briefly explore the development and use of language. We will also discuss problem solving and creativity before ending with a discussion of how intelligence is measured and how our biology and environments interact to affect intelligence. After finishing this chapter, you will have a greater appreciation of the higher-level cognitive processes that contribute to our distinctiveness as a species.
Abler, W. (2013). Sapir, Harris, and Chomsky in the twentieth century. Cognitive Critique, 7, 29–48.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. (2013). Definition of intellectual disability. Retrieved from http://aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition#.UmkR2xD2Bh4
American Psychological Association. (2013). In Diagnostic and statistical manual of psychological disorders (5th ed., pp. 34–36). Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.
Aronson, E. (Ed.). (1995). Social cognition. In The social animal (p. 151). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Atkins v. Virginia, 00-8452 (2002).
Bartels, M., Rietveld, M., Van Baal, G., & Boomsma, D. I. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on the development of intelligence. Behavior Genetics, 32(4), 237–238.
Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Bayer, J. B., & Campbell, S. W. (2012). Texting while driving on automatic: Considering the frequency-independent side of habit. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 2083–2090.
Barton, S. M. (2003). Classroom accommodations for students with dyslexia. Learning Disabilities Journal, 13, 10–14.
Berlin, B., & Kay, P. (1969). Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkley: University of California Press.
Berninger, V. W. (2008). Defining and differentiating dysgraphia, dyslexia, and language learning disability within a working memory model. In M. Mody & E. R. Silliman (Eds.), Brain, behavior, and learning in language and reading disorders (pp. 103–134). New York: The Guilford Press.
Blossom, M., & Morgan, J. L. (2006). Does the face say what the mouth says? A study of infants’ sensitivity to visual prosody. In the 30th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Somerville, MA.
Boake, C. (2002, May 24). From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: Tracing the history of intelligence testing. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(3), 383–405.
Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43, 1–22.
Boroditsky, L. (2011, February). How language shapes thought. Scientific American, 63–65.Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L., & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250, 223–228.
Cairns Regional Council. (n.d.). Cultural greetings. Retrieved from http://www.cairns.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/8953/CulturalGreetingExercise.pdf
Callero, P. L. (1994). From role-playing to role-using: Understanding role as resource. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 228–243.
Cattell, R. (1963). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), 1–22.
Cianciolo, A. T., & Sternberg, R. J. (2004). Intelligence: A brief history. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Chomsky, N.(1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Corballis, M. C., & Suddendorf, T. (2007). Memory, time, and language. In C. Pasternak (Ed.), What makes us human (pp. 17–36). Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications.
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2013). Gandhi and civil disobedience. Retrieved from http://www.crf-usa.org/black-history-month/gandhi-and-civil-disobedience
Cropley, A. (2006). In praise of convergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18(3), 391–404.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. (1993). Family influences on the development of giftedness. Ciba Foundation Symposium, 178, 187–206.
Curtiss, S. (1981). Dissociations between language and cognition: Cases and implications. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11(1), 15–30.
Cyclopedia of Puzzles. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.mathpuzzle.com/loyd/
Dates and Events. (n.d.). Oprah Winfrey timeline. Retrieved from http://www.datesandevents.org/people-timelines/05-oprah-winfrey-timeline.htm
Fernández, E. M., & Cairns, H. S. (2011). Fundamentals of psycholinguistics. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Flanagan, D., & Kaufman, A. (2004). Essentials of WISC-IV assessment. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Flynn, J., Shaughnessy, M. F., & Fulgham, S. W. (2012) Interview with Jim Flynn about the Flynn effect. North American Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 25–38.
Fox, M. (2012, November 1). Arthur R. Jensen dies at 89; Set off debate about I.Q. New York Times, p. B15.
Fromkin, V., Krashen, S., Curtiss, S., Rigler, D., & Rigler, M. (1974). The development of language in Genie: A case of language acquisition beyond the critical period. Brain and Language, 1, 81–107.
Furnham, A. (2009). The validity of a new, self-report measure of multiple intelligence. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 28, 225–239.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H., & Moran, S. (2006). The science of multiple intelligences theory: A response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational Psychologist, 41, 227–232.
German, T. P., & Barrett, H. C. (2005). Functional fixedness in a technologically sparse culture. Psychological Science, 16, 1–5.
Goad, B. (2013, January 25). SSA wants to stop calling people 'mentally retarded.’ Retrieved from http://thehill.com/blogs/regwatch/pending-regs/279399-ssa-wants-to-stop-calling-people-mentally-retarded
Goldstone, R. L., & Kersten, A. (2003). Concepts and categorization. In A. F. Healy, R. W. Proctor, & I.B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology (Volume IV, pp. 599–622). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence; Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
Gordon, O. E. (1995). Francis Galton (1822–1911). Retrieved from http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/Galton.html
Gresham, F. M., & Witt, J. C. (1997). Utility of intelligence tests for treatment planning, classification, and placement decisions: Recent empirical findings and future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(3), 249–267.
Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Heaton, S. (2004). Making the switch: Unlocking the mystery of the WISC-IV. Case Conference. University of Florida.
Jensen, J. (2011). Phoneme acquisition: Infants and second language learners. The Language Teacher, 35(6), 24–28.
Johnson, J. S., & Newport, E. L. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60–99.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Kishyama, M. M., Boyce, W. T., Jimenez, A. M., Perry, L. M., & Knight, R. T. (2009). Socioeconomic disparities affect prefrontal function in children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(6), 1106–1115.
Klein, P. D. (1997). Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight: A critique of Gardner’s theory. Canadian Journal of Education, 22, 377-94.
Larry P v. Riles, C-71-2270 RFP. (1979).
Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.
Liptak, A. (2008, January 19). Lawyer reveals secret, toppling death sentence. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/19/us/19death.html?_r=0
Locke, E. A. (2005, April 14). Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 425–431.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications, Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197–215.
Modgil, S., & Routledge, C. M. (Eds.). (1987). Arthur Jensen: Consensus and controversy. New York: Falmer Press.
Morgan, H. (1996). An analysis of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 18, 263–269.
Moskowitz, B. A. (1978). The acquisition of language. Scientific American, 239, 92–108. Petitto, L. A., Holowka, S., Sergio, L. E., Levy, B., & Ostry, D. J. (2004). Baby hands that move to the rhythm of language: Hearing babies acquiring sign languages babble silently on the hands. Cognition, 93, 43–73.
Neyfakh, L. (2013, October 7). “Why you can’t stop checking your phone.” Retrieved from http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2013/10/06/why-you-can-stop-checking-your-phone/rrBJzyBGDAr1YlEH5JQDcM/story.html
Parker, J. D., Saklofske, D. H., & Stough, C. (Eds.). (2009). Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Springer.
Petitto, L. A., Holowka, S., Sergio, L. E., Levy, B., & Ostry, D. J. (2004). Baby hands that move to the rhythm of language: Hearing babies acquiring sign languages babble silently on the hands. Cognition, 93, 43–73.
Pickens, J. (1994). Full-term and preterm infants’ perception of face-voice synchrony. Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 447–455.
Pratkanis, A. (1989). The cognitive representation of attitudes. In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 71–98). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Regier, T., & Kay, P. (2009). Language, thought, and color: Whorf was half right. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(10), 439–446.
Riccio, C. A., Gonzales, J. J., & Hynd, G. W. (1994). Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17, 311–322.
Richardson, K. (2002). What IQ tests test. Theory & Psychology, 12(3), 283–314.
Roberts, D. (2014, May 27). U.S. Supreme Court bars Florida from using IQ score cutoff for executions. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/27/us-supreme-court-iq-score-cutoff-florida-execution
Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2005). Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability. Psychology, public policy, and law, 11(2), 235–294.
Rymer, R. (1993). Genie: A Scientific Tragedy. New York: Harper Collins.
Sapir, E. (1964). Culture, language, and personality. Berkley: University of California Press. (Original work published 1941)
Schlinger, H. D. (2003). The myth of intelligence. The Psychological Record, 53(1), 15–32.
Severson, K. (2011, December 9). Thousands sterilized, a state weighs restitution. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/10/us/redress-weighed-for-forced-sterilizations-in-north-carolina.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Singleton, D. M. (1995). Introduction: A critical look at the critical period hypothesis in second language acquisition research. In D.M. Singleton & Z. Lengyel (Eds.), The age factor in second language acquisition: A critical look at the critical period hypothesis in second language acquisition research (pp. 1–29). Avon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Acton, MA: Copley Publishing Group.
Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M., & Van Galen, G. P. (1997). Dysgraphia in children: Lasting psychomotor deficiency or transient developmental delay? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67, 164–184.
Spelke, E. S., & Cortelyou, A. (1981). Perceptual aspects of social knowing: Looking and listening in infancy. In M.E. Lamb & L.R. Sherrod (Eds.), Infant social cognition: Empirical and theoretical considerations (pp. 61–83). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Steitz, T. (2010). Thomas A. Steitz – Biographical. (K. Grandin, Ed.) Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2009/steitz-bio.html
Sternberg, R. J. (1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of intelligence. New York: Viking-Penguin.
Terman, L. M. (1925). Mental and physical traits of a thousand gifted children (I). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terman, L. M., & Oden, M. H. (1947). The gifted child grows up: 25 years’ follow-up of a superior group: Genetic studies of genius (Vol. 4). Standord, CA: Stanford University Press.
Terman, L. M. (1916). The measurement of intelligence. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Tomasello, M., & Rakoczy, H. (2003). What makes human cognition unique? From individual to shared to collective intentionality. Mind & Language, 18(2), 121–147.
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124–1131.
van Troyer, G. (1994). Linguistic determinism and mutability: The Sapir-Whorf “hypothesis” and intercultural communication. JALT Journal, 2, 163–178.
Wechsler, D. (1958). The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2002 ). WPPSI-R manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Werker, J. F., & Lalonde, C. E. (1988). Cross-language speech perception: Initial capabilities and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 24, 672–683.
Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C. (1984). Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 49–63.
Whorf, B. L. (1956). Language, thought and relativity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Williams, R. L., (1970). Danger: Testing and dehumanizing black children. Clinical Child Psychology Newsletter, 9(1), 5–6.
Zwicker, J. G. (2005). Effectiveness of occupational therapy in remediating handwriting difficulties in primary students: Cognitive versus multisensory interventions. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada). Retrieved from http://dspace.library.uvic.ca:8080/bitstream/handle/1828/49/Zwicker%20thesis.pdf?sequence=1
Module 1 Introduction to Sport Psychology.pptx
School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science 312073 • Curtin University