Introductions & Conclusions: Objectives and Outline

Chapter 9: Introductions and Conclusions

By Warren Sandmann, Ph.D.

Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN



After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • List and describe the four functions of an introduction
  • List and describe the common types of attention getters
  • Describe and implement strategies for preparing introductions
  • List and describe the four functions of a conclusion
  • List and describe common types of conclusions
  • Describe and implement strategies for preparing conclusions
  • Apply chapter concepts in review questions and activities

Chapter Outline

  • Introduction
  • Functions of Introductions

    • Gain Attention and Interest
    • Gain Goodwill
    • Clearly State the Purpose
    • Preview and Structure the Speech

  • Attention-Getting Strategies

    • Tell a Story
    • Refer to the Occasion
    • Refer to Recent or Historical Events
    • Refer to Previous Speeches
    • Refer to Personal Interest
    • Use a Startling Statistic
    • Use an Analogy
    • Use a Quotation
    • Ask a Question
    • Use Humor

  • Preparing the Introduction

    • Construct the Introduction Last
    • Make it Relevant
    • Make it Succinct
    • Write it Out Word for Word

  • Functions of Conclusions

    • Prepare the Audience for the end of the speech
    • Present Any Final Appeals
    • Summarize and Close
    • End with a Clincher
    • Appeals and Challenges

  • Composing the Conclusion

    • Prepare the Conclusion
    • Do Not Include any New Information
    • Follow the Structure

  • Conclusion
  • Review Questions and Activities
  • Glossary
  • References

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