At its most fundamental level, life is made up of matter. Matter is any substance that occupies space and has mass. Elements are unique forms of matter with specific chemical and physical properties that cannot be broken down into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions. There are 118 elements, but only 92 occur naturally. The remaining elements are synthesized in laboratories and are unstable.
Each element is designated by its chemical symbol, which is a single capital letter or, when the first letter is already "taken" by another element, a combination of two letters. Some elements follow the English term for the element, such as C for carbon and Ca for calcium. Other elements' chemical symbols derive from their Latin names; for example, the symbol for sodium is Na, referring to natrium, the Latin word for sodium.
The four elements common to all living organisms are oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N). In the non-living world, elements are found in different proportions, and some elements common to living organisms are relatively rare on the earth as a whole, as shown in Table 1. For example, the atmosphere is rich in nitrogen and oxygen but contains little carbon and hydrogen, while the earth's crust, although it contains oxygen and a small amount of hydrogen, has little nitrogen and carbon. In spite of their differences in abundance, all elements and the chemical reactions between them obey the same chemical and physical laws regardless of whether they are a part of the living or non-living world.
Table 1. Approximate Percentage of Elements in Living Organisms (Humans) Compared to the Non-living World
Draw a diagram of an atom, according to current scientific understanding
Understand the periodic table of elements and how to use it to understand elements
Describe the behavior and location of electrons, and how these factors influence bond formation between atoms
The Structure of the Atom
To understand how elements come together, we must first discuss the smallest component or building block of an element, the atom. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element. For example, one gold atom has all of the properties of gold in that it is a solid metal at room temperature. A gold coin is simply a very large number of gold atoms molded into the shape of a coin and containing small amounts of other elements known as impurities. Gold atoms cannot be broken down into anything smaller while still retaining the properties of gold.
An atom is composed of two regions: the nucleus, which is in the center of the atom and contains protons and neutrons, and the outermost region of the atom which holds its electrons in orbit around the nucleus, as illustrated in Figure 1. Atoms contain protons, electrons, and neutrons, among other subatomic particles. The only exception is hydrogen (H), which is made of one proton and one electron with no neutrons.
Figure 1. Elements, such as helium, depicted here, are made up of atoms. Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons located within the nucleus, with electrons in orbitals surrounding the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1.67 × 10–24 grams. Scientists arbitrarily define this amount of mass as one atomic mass unit (amu) or one Dalton, as shown in Table 1. Although similar in mass, protons and neutrons differ in their electric charge. A proton is positively charged whereas a neutron is uncharged. Therefore, the number of neutrons in an atom contributes significantly to its mass, but not to its charge. Electrons are much smaller in mass than protons, weighing only 9.11 × 10–28 grams, or about 1/1800 of an atomic mass unit. Hence, they do not contribute much to an element's overall atomic mass. Therefore, when considering atomic mass, it is customary to ignore the mass of any electrons and calculate the atom's mass based on the number of protons and neutrons alone. Although not significant contributors to mass, electrons do contribute greatly to the atom's charge, as each electron has a negative charge equal to the positive charge of a proton. In uncharged, neutral atoms, the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus is equal to the number of protons inside the nucleus. In these atoms, the positive and negative charges cancel each other out, leading to an atom with no net charge.
Accounting for the sizes of protons, neutrons, and electrons, most of the volume of an atom—greater than 99 percent—is, in fact, empty space. With all this empty space, one might ask why so-called solid objects do not just pass through one another. The reason they do not is that the electrons that surround all atoms are negatively charged and negative charges repel each other.
Table 1. Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Atomic Number and Mass
Atoms of each element contain a characteristic number of protons and electrons. The number of protons determines an element's atomic number and is used to distinguish one element from another. The number of neutrons is variable, resulting in isotopes, which are different forms of the same atom that vary only in the number of neutrons they possess. Together, the number of protons and the number of neutrons determine an element's mass number, as illustrated in Figure 2. Note that the small contribution of mass from electrons is disregarded in calculating the mass number. This approximation of mass can be used to easily calculate how many neutrons an element has by simply subtracting the number of protons from the mass number. Since an element's isotopes will have slightly different mass numbers, scientists also determine the atomic mass, which is the calculated mean of the mass number for its naturally occurring isotopes. Often, the resulting number contains a fraction. For example, the atomic mass of chlorine (Cl) is 35.45 because chlorine is composed of several isotopes, some (the majority) with atomic mass 35 (17 protons and 18 neutrons) and some with atomic mass 37 (17 protons and 20 neutrons).
Carbon has an atomic number of six, and two stable isotopes with mass numbers of twelve and thirteen, respectively. Its atomic mass is 12.11.
Figure 2. Carbon-12 and carbon-13
How many neutrons do carbon-12 and carbon-13 have, respectively?
Carbon-12 has six neutrons. Carbon-13 has seven neutrons.
The Periodic Table of Elements
The different elements are organized and displayed in the periodic table. Devised by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834–1907) in 1869, the table groups elements that, although unique, share certain chemical properties with other elements. The properties of elements are responsible for their physical state at room temperature: they may be gases, solids, or liquids. Elements also have specific chemical reactivity, the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other.
In the periodic table, shown in Figure 3, the elements are organized and displayed according to their atomic number and are arranged in a series of rows and columns based on shared chemical and physical properties. In addition to providing the atomic number for each element, the periodic table also displays the element's atomic mass. Looking at carbon, for example, its symbol (C) and name appear, as well as its atomic number of six (in the upper left-hand corner) and its atomic mass of 12.11.
Figure 3. The periodic table shows the atomic mass and atomic number of each element. The atomic number appears above the symbol for the element and the approximate atomic mass appears below it.
The periodic table groups elements according to chemical properties. The differences in chemical reactivity between the elements are based on the number and spatial distribution of an atom's electrons. Atoms that chemically react and bond to each other form molecules. Molecules are simply two or more atoms chemically bonded together. Logically, when two atoms chemically bond to form a molecule, their electrons, which form the outermost region of each atom, come together first as the atoms form a chemical bond.
Watch this video for a more in-depth introduction to the periodic table:
Electron Shells and the Bohr Model
Figure 4. The Bohr model.
It should be stressed that there is a connection between the number of protons in an element, the atomic number that distinguishes one element from another, and the number of electrons it has. In all electrically neutral atoms, the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons. Thus, each element, at least when electrically neutral, has a characteristic number of electrons equal to its atomic number.
An early model of the atom was developed in 1913 by Danish scientist Niels Bohr (1885–1962). In this model, electrons exist within principal shells. An electron normally exists in the lowest energy shell available, which is the one closest to the nucleus. Energy from a photon of light can bump it up to a higher energy shell, but this situation is unstable, and the electron quickly decays back to the ground state. In the process, a photon of light is released.
The Bohr model shows the atom as a central nucleus containing protons and neutrons, with the electrons in circular orbitals at specific distances from the nucleus, as illustrated in Figure 4. These orbits form electron shells or energy levels, which are a way of visualizing the number of electrons in the outermost shells. These energy levels are designated by a number and the symbol "n." For example, 1n represents the first energy level located closest to the nucleus.
Electrons fill orbitals in a consistent order: they first fill the orbitals closest to the nucleus, then they continue to fill orbitals of increasing energy further from the nucleus. If there are multiple orbitals of equal energy, they will be filled with one electron in each energy level before a second electron is added. The electrons of the outermost energy level determine the energetic stability of the atom and its tendency to form chemical bonds with other atoms to form molecules.
Under standard conditions, atoms fill the inner shells first, often resulting in a variable number of electrons in the outermost shell. The innermost shell has a maximum of two electrons but the next two electron shells can each have a maximum of eight electrons. This is known as the octet rule, which states, with the exception of the innermost shell, that atoms are more stable energetically when they have eight electrons in their valence shell, the outermost electron shell. Examples of some neutral atoms and their electron configurations are shown in Figure 5. Notice that in this figure, helium has a complete outer electron shell, with two electrons filling its first and only shell. Similarly, neon has a complete outer 2n shell containing eight electrons. In contrast, chlorine and sodium have seven and one in their outer shells, respectively, but theoretically they would be more energetically stable if they followed the octet rule and had eight.
Figure 5. Bohr diagrams for hydrogen, helium, lithium, carbon, fluorine, neon, sodium, silicon, chlorine, and argon.
Bohr diagrams indicate how many electrons fill each principal shell. Group 18 elements (helium, neon, and argon are shown in Figure 5) have a full outer, or valence, shell. A full valence shell is the most stable electron configuration. Elements in other groups have partially filled valence shells and gain or lose electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration.
An atom may give, take, or share electrons with another atom to achieve a full valence shell, the most stable electron configuration. Looking at this figure, how many electrons do elements in group 1 need to lose in order to achieve a stable electron configuration? How many electrons do elements in groups 14 and 17 need to gain to achieve a stable configuration?
Elements in group 1 need to lose one electron to achieve a stable electron configuration. Elements in groups 14 and 17 need to gain four and one electrons, respectively, to achieve a stable configuration.
Understanding that the organization of the periodic table is based on the total number of protons (and electrons) helps us know how electrons are distributed among the outer shell. The periodic table is arranged in columns and rows based on the number of electrons and where these electrons are located. Take a closer look at the some of the elements in the periodic table's far right column in Figure 3.
The group 18 atoms helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) all have filled outer electron shells, making it unnecessary for them to share electrons with other atoms to attain stability; they are highly stable as single atoms. Their non-reactivity has resulted in their being named the inert gases (or noble gases). Compare this to the group 1 elements in the left-hand column. These elements, including hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), and sodium (Na), all have one electron in their outermost shells. That means that they can achieve a stable configuration and a filled outer shell by donating or sharing one electron with another atom or a molecule such as water. Hydrogen will donate or share its electron to achieve this configuration, while lithium and sodium will donate their electron to become stable. As a result of losing a negatively charged electron, they become positively charged ions. Group 17 elements, including fluorine and chlorine, have seven electrons in their outmost shells, so they tend to fill this shell with an electron from other atoms or molecules, making them negatively charged ions. Group 14 elements, of which carbon is the most important to living systems, have four electrons in their outer shell allowing them to make several covalent bonds (discussed below) with other atoms. Thus, the columns of the periodic table represent the potential shared state of these elements' outer electron shells that is responsible for their similar chemical characteristics.
Although useful to explain the reactivity and chemical bonding of certain elements, the Bohr model of the atom does not accurately reflect how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus. They do not circle the nucleus like the earth orbits the sun, but are found in electron orbitals. These relatively complex shapes result from the fact that electrons behave not just like particles, but also like waves. Mathematical equations from quantum mechanics known as wave functions can predict within a certain level of probability where an electron might be at any given time. The area where an electron is most likely to be found is called its orbital.
Figure 6. Click for a larger image. The s subshells are shaped like spheres. Both the 1n and 2n principal shells have an s orbital, but the size of the sphere is larger in the 2n orbital. Each sphere is a single orbital. p subshells are made up of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals. Principal shell 2n has a p subshell, but shell 1 does not.
Recall that the Bohr model depicts an atom's electron shell configuration. Within each electron shell are subshells, and each subshell has a specified number of orbitals containing electrons. While it is impossible to calculate exactly where an electron is located, scientists know that it is most probably located within its orbital path. Subshells are designated by the letters s, p, d, and f. The s subshell is spherical in shape and has one orbital. Principal shell 1n has only a single s orbital, which can hold two electrons. Principal shell 2n has one s and one p subshell, and can hold a total of eight electrons. The p subshell has three dumbbell-shaped orbitals, as illustrated in Figure 6. Subshells d and f have more complex shapes and contain five and seven orbitals, respectively. These are not shown in the illustration. Principal shell 3n has s, p, and d subshells and can hold 18 electrons. Principal shell 4n has s, p, d and f orbitals and can hold 32 electrons. Moving away from the nucleus, the number of electrons and orbitals found in the energy levels increases. Progressing from one atom to the next in the periodic table, the electron structure can be worked out by fitting an extra electron into the next available orbital.
The closest orbital to the nucleus, called the 1s orbital, can hold up to two electrons. This orbital is equivalent to the innermost electron shell of the Bohr model of the atom. It is called the 1s orbital because it is spherical around the nucleus. The 1s orbital is the closest orbital to the nucleus, and it is always filled first, before any other orbital can be filled. Hydrogen has one electron; therefore, it has only one spot within the 1s orbital occupied. This is designated as 1s1, where the superscripted 1 refers to the one electron within the 1s orbital. Helium has two electrons; therefore, it can completely fill the 1s orbital with its two electrons. This is designated as 1s2, referring to the two electrons of helium in the 1s orbital. On the periodic table Figure 6, hydrogen and helium are the only two elements in the first row (period); this is because they only have electrons in their first shell, the 1s orbital. Hydrogen and helium are the only two elements that have the 1s and no other electron orbitals in the electrically neutral state.
The second electron shell may contain eight electrons. This shell contains another spherical s orbital and three "dumbbell" shaped p orbitals, each of which can hold two electrons, as shown in Figure 6. After the 1s orbital is filled, the second electron shell is filled, first filling its 2s orbital and then its three p orbitals. When filling the p orbitals, each takes a single electron; once each p orbital has an electron, a second may be added. Lithium (Li) contains three electrons that occupy the first and second shells. Two electrons fill the 1s orbital, and the third electron then fills the 2s orbital. Its electron configuration is 1s22s1. Neon (Ne), on the other hand, has a total of ten electrons: two are in its innermost 1s orbital and eight fill its second shell (two each in the 2s and three p orbitals); thus, it is an inert gas and energetically stable as a single atom that will rarely form a chemical bond with other atoms. Larger elements have additional orbitals, making up the third electron shell. While the concepts of electron shells and orbitals are closely related, orbitals provide a more accurate depiction of the electron configuration of an atom because the orbital model specifies the different shapes and special orientations of all the places that electrons may occupy.
Watch this visual animation to see the spatial arrangement of the p and s orbitals. Note that this video has no audio.
This video gives another overview of the electron:
Check Your Understanding
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