Agents of Socialization

What you'll learn to do: describe the roles that agents of socialization play in the socialization process and describe how socialization develops across the life course

A family sits around a round table eating a meal together. We discussed food and food production as a cultural universal in an earlier module on culture. All cultures also have norms regarding the preparing and eating of food. Where did you learn your table manners? Chances are, you were instructed from an early age at your home dinner table about how to eat appropriately around others. Or maybe your parents never explicitly said, "chew with your mouth closed," but you picked up on their disapproval when they looked at you and frowned. Table manners vary from culture to culture and also within cultures. Burping after a meal is regarded as a compliment to the chef in certain parts of the world, "slurping" soup is acceptable in others, eating with one's hands or with chopsticks is the norm in many parts of the world, and so on. Does one eat alone or with others? In New York City, for example, people are often seen eating alone and/or "on the go" (i.e. walking and eating one's lunch) whereas this would be very unusual in other places. Is texting or updating social media while eating with others acceptable? Social norms change over time and vary between and within cultures.

In this section, you'll see that it's through direct interactions with social groups, like families and peers, that we learn how others expect us to behave. Likewise, a society’s formal and informal institutions socialize its population. Schools, workplaces, and the media communicate and reinforce cultural norms and values.

Learning outcomes

  • Examine the roles of agents of socialization, such as families, peer groups, and institutional agents
  • Explain how socialization is a lifelong process
  • Describe the characteristics of a total institution
  • Describe when and how resocialization occurs


Agents of Socialization

Socialization helps people learn to function successfully in their social worlds. How does the process of socialization occur? How do we learn to use the objects of our society’s material culture? How do we come to adopt the beliefs, values, and norms that represent its nonmaterial culture? This learning takes place through interaction with various agents of socialization, like peer groups and families, plus both formal and informal social institutions.

Agents of Socialization

Social groups often provide the first experiences of socialization. Families, and later peer groups, communicate expectations and reinforce norms. People first learn to use the tangible objects of material culture in these settings, as well as being introduced to the beliefs and values of society.

Family

Family is the first agent of socialization. What constitutes family is also socially constructed and may or may not exclusively refer to blood relatives. Family may include neighbors and/or close friends, but more typically includes parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. These family members teach a child what he or she needs to know. For example, they show the child how to use objects such as clothes, computers, eating utensils, books, or bikes; how to relate to others (some as “family,” others as “friends,” still others as “strangers” or “teachers” or “neighbors”); and how the world works (what is “real” and what is “imagined”). As you are aware, either from your own experience as a child and/or from your role in helping to raise one, socialization includes teaching and learning about an unending array of objects and ideas.

Keep in mind, however, that families do not socialize children in a vacuum. Many social factors affect the way a family raises its children. For example, we can use the sociological imagination to recognize that individual behaviors are affected by the historical period in which they take place. For example, people raised in the 1940s (perhaps your grandparents or great grandparents) did not have televisions in their homes but people raised in the 1950s and 1960s typically did. Today, parents are deciding when to buy their child a cell phone, how much "screen time" they can have in a day, and are using all types of technology to monitor their children, from location tracking apps to Internet filters. Not only are families demonstrating norms related to technology through their own modeling and ongoing process of socialization, but they are also teaching norms and values explicitly.   

Sociologists recognize that race, social class, religion, and other factors play an important role in socialization. For example, poor families usually emphasize obedience and conformity when raising their children, while wealthy families emphasize judgment and creativity (National Opinion Research Center 2008). This may occur because working-class parents have less education and often occupy repetitive-task jobs for which it is helpful to be able to follow rules and conform. Wealthy parents tend to have better educations and often work in managerial positions or careers that require creative problem solving, so they teach their children behaviors that are beneficial in these positions. This means children are effectively socialized and raised to take the types of jobs their parents already have, thus reproducing the class system (Kohn 1977). Likewise, children are socialized to abide by gender norms, perceptions of race, and class-related behaviors.

A man is shown standing in front of a sink holding a newborn baby. Figure 1. The socialized roles of dads (and moms) vary by society. (Photo courtesy of Nate Grigg/flickr)


In Sweden, for instance, stay-at-home fathers are an accepted part of the social landscape. A government policy provides subsidized time off work—480 days for families with newborns—with the option of the paid leave being shared between mothers and fathers. As one stay-at-home dad says, being home to take care of his baby son “is a real fatherly thing to do. I think that’s very masculine” (Associated Press 2011). Close to 90 percent of Swedish fathers use their paternity leave (about 340,000 dads); on average they take seven weeks per birth (The Economist, 2014). How do U.S. policies—and our society’s expected gender roles—compare? How will Swedish children raised this way be socialized to parental gender norms? How might that be different from parental gender norms in the United States?

Peer Groups

A peer group is made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests. Peer group socialization begins in the earliest years, such as when kids on a playground teach younger children the norms about taking turns, the rules of a game, or how to shoot a basket. As children grow into teenagers, this process continues. Peer groups are important to adolescents in a new way, as they begin to develop an identity separate from their parents and exert independence. Additionally, peer groups provide their own opportunities for socialization since kids usually engage in different types of activities with their peers than they do with their families.

The way peer groups interact has also changed over time with technological advances. Thirty years ago, kids played Nintendo or Sega but they were not "online." If they wanted to play video games with others, they had to arrange it. Today, kids are playing video games with people from all over the world with a few clicks. Their peer group might include people they have never met outside of video games or social media.  

Peer groups provide adolescents’ first major socialization experience outside the realm of their families. Interestingly, studies have shown that although friendships rank high in adolescents’ priorities, this is balanced by parental influence.

Institutional Agents

The social institutions of our culture also inform our socialization. Formal institutions—like schools, workplaces, and the government—teach people how to behave in and navigate these systems. Other institutions, like the media, contribute to socialization by inundating us with messages about norms and expectations.

A female teacher is shown sitting in a chair and reading a picture book to a group of children sitting in front of her. Figure 2. These kindergarteners aren’t just learning to read and write; they are being socialized to norms like keeping their hands to themselves, standing in line, and reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. (Photo courtesy of Bonner Springs Library/flickr)


School

Most U.S. children spend about seven hours a day, 180 days a year, in school, which makes it hard to deny the importance school has on their socialization (U.S. Department of Education 2004). Students are not in school only to study math, reading, science, and other subjects--the manifest function of this system--schools also serve a latent function in society by socializing children into behaviors like practicing teamwork, following a schedule, and using textbooks.

School and classroom rituals, led by teachers serving as role models and leaders, regularly reinforce what society expects from children. Sociologists describe this aspect of schools as the hidden curriculum, the informal teaching done by schools. For example, in the United States, schools have built a sense of competition into the way grades are awarded and the way teachers evaluate students (Bowles and Gintis 1976). When children participate in a relay race or a math contest, they learn there are winners and losers in society. When children are required to work together on a project, they practice teamwork with other people in cooperative situations. The hidden curriculum prepares children for the adult world. Children learn how to deal with bureaucracy, rules, expectations, waiting their turn, and sitting still for hours during the day. Schools in different cultures socialize children differently in order to prepare them to function well in those cultures. The latent functions of teamwork and dealing with bureaucracy are features of U.S. culture. Schools also have structures in place to reward students for attendance and timeliness and to punish students for absenteeism and lateness. For young children, who are often unable to get themselves to school and rely on their families, this can unfairly punish young students who have little control over when they arrive at school. 

Schools also socialize children by teaching them about citizenship and national pride. In the United States, children are taught to say the Pledge of Allegiance. Most districts require classes about U.S. history and geography. As academic understanding of history evolves, textbooks in the United States have been scrutinized and revised to update attitudes toward other cultures as well as perspectives on historical events; thus, children are more effectively socialized to a more inclusive world history than earlier textbooks might have offered. For example, information about the mistreatment of African Americans and Native Americans more accurately reflects those events compared to past textbooks. However, the experience of Latinos, Blacks, and Asian Americans is still neglected in many standard textbooks. 

Further Research

Watch this clip of Belissa Escoloedo, Zariya Allen, and Rhiannan McGavin as they present their poem "Somewhere in America" at the 2014 Brave New Voices Poetry Slam. Look for examples of the hidden curriculum in public schools.

Controversial Textbooks

On August 13, 2001, twenty South Korean men gathered in Seoul. Each chopped off one of his own fingers because of textbooks. These men took drastic measures to protest eight middle school textbooks approved by Tokyo for use in Japanese middle schools. According to the Korean government (and other East Asian nations), the textbooks glossed over negative events in Japan’s history at the expense of other Asian countries.

In the early 1900s, Japan was one of Asia’s more aggressive nations. For instance, it held Korea as a colony between 1910 and 1945. Today, Koreans argue that the Japanese are whitewashing that colonial history through these textbooks. One major criticism is that they do not mention that, during World War II, the Japanese forced Korean women into sexual slavery. The textbooks describe the women as having been “drafted” to work, a euphemism that downplays the brutality of what actually occurred. Some Japanese textbooks dismiss an important Korean independence demonstration in 1919 as a “riot.” In reality, Japanese soldiers attacked peaceful demonstrators, leaving roughly 6,000 dead and 15,000 wounded (Crampton 2002).

Although it may seem extreme that people are so enraged about how events are described in a textbook that they would resort to self-dismemberment, the protest affirms that textbooks are a significant tool of socialization in state-run education systems.

The Workplace

Just as children spend much of their day at school, many adults at some point invest a significant amount of time at a place of employment. Although socialized into their culture since birth, workers require new socialization into a workplace, in terms of both material culture (such as how to operate the copy machine) and nonmaterial culture (such as whether it’s okay to speak directly to the boss or how to share the break room refrigerator).

Different jobs require different types of socialization. In the past, many people worked a single job until retirement. Today, the trend is to switch jobs at least once a decade. Between the ages of eighteen and forty-six, the average baby boomer of the younger set held 11.3 different jobs (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). This means that people must become socialized to, and socialized by, a variety of work environments.

Religion

While some religions are informal institutions, here we focus on practices followed by formal institutions. Religion is an important avenue of socialization for many people. The United States is full of synagogues, temples, churches, mosques, and similar religious communities where people gather to worship and learn. Like other institutions, these places teach participants how to interact with the religion’s material culture (like a mezuzah, a prayer rug, or a communion wafer). For some people, important ceremonies related to family structure—like marriage and birth—are connected to religious celebrations. Many religious institutions also uphold gender norms and contribute to their enforcement through socialization. From ceremonial rites of passage that reinforce the family unit to power dynamics that reinforce gender roles, organized religion fosters a shared set of socialized values that are passed on through society.

Mass Media

Mass media distribute impersonal information to a wide audience, via television, newspapers, radio, and the Internet. With the average person spending over four hours a day in front of the television (and children averaging even more screen time), media greatly influence social norms (Roberts, Foehr, and Rideout 2005). People learn about objects of material culture (like new technology and transportation options), as well as nonmaterial culture—what is true (beliefs), what is important (values), and what is expected (norms).

Gender role socialization and animated films

Photo of the cover of Disney's The Little Mermaid movie Figure 3. Some people are concerned about the way girls today are socialized into a “princess culture.” (Photo courtesy of Jørgen Håland/flickr).

Pixar is one of the largest producers of children’s movies in the world and has released large box office draws and hugely popular films such as Toy Story (1995) and its sequels (1999), (2010), and (2019), Monsters, Inc. (2001) and Monsters University (2013), Finding Nemo (2003) and Finding Dori (2016), Cars (2006) and its sequels (2011) and (2017), The Incredibles (2004) and its sequel (2018), Up (2009), Brave (2012), Inside Out (2015), and Coco (2017), just to name a few.

Disney, Pixar’s parent company, and Pixar were both criticized for not including female leads and in cases in which the star is a female (i.e. Snow White, Cinderella, The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, and Mulan) for reifying tropes like the princess who needs to be saved by a prince. In some cases, the female lead is captured (Belle in Beauty and the Beast) and mistreated by the male character who becomes a prince, or rendered mute as in The Little Mermaid, or in the case of Mulan, when a female is a war hero (dressed as a male), she is expected to be humble and go back to her domestic duties after the war. 

Prior to Brave, Pixar films featured females as supporting characters and love interests. In Up, for example, the only human female character dies within the first ten minutes of the film. For the millions of girls watching Pixar films, there were few strong characters or roles for them to relate to but several recent films have changed and featured female leads. BraveThe Incredibles 2Inside Out, and Coco all feature female lead characters. A closer examination of Riley Anderson in Inside Out reveals gendered emotions. Joy, sadness, and disgust are emotions personified by female voices whereas anger and fear are personified by male voices. Is this reifying the gender stereotypes of masculine and feminine emotions? 

The Incredibles 2 (2018) features a working mom and a stay-at-home dad, a reversal of traditional gender role norms. Noticeably the mom is the lead in Incredibles 2 and the breadwinner whereas in The Incredibles she was supporting her husband's efforts to save the world. Mom (Elastigirl) feels guilty for leaving her children to work, Dad (Mr. Incredible) feels overwhelmed and inadequate at times, and the kids are impressed with Mom's efforts to save the world. Some of the gender role stereotypes from the 2004 film cannot be overcome, though. The name Elastigirl infantilizes a grown woman and some reviewers argued that she is overly sexualized and once again reifying the role of women as sexual objects in film (see the New Yorker review of the Incredibles 2 that was shared on Twitter).  

Think It Over

  • Do you think it is important that parents discuss gender roles with their young children, or is gender a topic better left for later? How do parents consider gender norms when buying their children books, movies, and toys? How do you believe they should consider it?
  • Based on your observations, when are adolescents more likely to listen to their parents or to their peer groups when making decisions? What types of dilemmas lend themselves toward one social agent over another?


Further Research

Most societies expect parents to socialize children into gender norms. See the controversy surrounding one Canadian couple’s refusal to raise their child with gender roles.

Socialization Across the Lifespan

Socialization isn’t a one-time or even a short-term event. We aren’t “stamped” by some socialization machine as we move along a conveyor belt and thereby socialized once and for all. Instead, socialization is a lifelong process.

In the United States, socialization throughout the life course is determined greatly by age norms and “time-related rules and regulations” (Setterson 2002). As we grow older, we encounter age-related transition points that require socialization into a new role, such as becoming school age, entering the workforce, or retiring. For example, the U.S. government mandates that all children attend school. Child labor laws, enacted in the early twentieth century, nationally established that childhood be a time of learning, not of labor. In countries such as Niger and Sierra Leone, however, child labor remains common and socially acceptable, with little legislation to regulate such practices (UNICEF 2012).

Gap Year: How Different Societies Socialize Young Adults

Princes William and Harry of the United Kingdom are shown talking to each other while applauding. Figure 4. Age transition points require socialization into new roles that can vary widely between societies. Young adults in America may enter college or the workforce right away, students in England and India can take a year off like British Princes William and Harry did, while young men in Singapore and Switzerland must serve time in the military, and men and women in Israel serve in the military. (Photo courtesy of Charles McCain/flickr)
Have you ever heard of gap year? It’s a common custom in British society among the upper class. When teens finish their secondary schooling (aka high school in the United States), they often take a year “off” before entering college. Frequently, they might take a job, travel, or find other ways to experience another culture. Prince William, the Duke of Cambridge, spent his gap year practicing survival skills in Belize, teaching English in Chile, and working on a dairy farm in the United Kingdom (Prince of Wales 2012a). His brother, Prince Harry, advocated for AIDS orphans in Africa and worked as a jackeroo (a novice ranch hand) in Australia (Prince of Wales 2012b).

In the United States, this life transition point is socialized quite differently, and taking a year off is generally frowned upon. Instead, U.S. youth are encouraged to pick career paths by their mid-teens, to select a college and a major by their late teens, and to have completed all collegiate schooling or technical training for their career by their early twenties. In 2017, Malia Obama chose to take a gap year rather and was criticized. Chelsea Clinton and Barbara and Jenna Bush went straight to college when their fathers were President of the United States, which resulted in a full secret service detail at their respective universities. Malia Obama represents a shift in American norms; many elite universities are recommending that students take a year "off" to avoid burnout.

In yet other nations, this phase of the life course often entails conscription, a term for compulsory military service. Egypt, Switzerland, Turkey, Israel, and Singapore all have this system in place. Youth in these nations (often only the males) are expected to undergo a number of months or years of military training and service.

How might your life be different if you lived in one of these other countries? Can you think of similar social norms—related to life age-transition points—that vary from country to country?

Many of life’s social expectations are made clear and enforced on a cultural level. Through interacting with others and watching others interact, the expectation to fulfill roles becomes clear. While in elementary or middle school, the prospect of having a boyfriend or girlfriend may have been considered undesirable. The socialization that takes place in high school, however, often changes our views regarding this expectation. By observing the excitement and importance attached to dating and relationships within the high school social scene, it quickly becomes apparent that one is now expected not only to be a child and a student, but also a significant other. Graduation from formal education—high school, vocational school, or college—involves socialization into a new set of expectations.

Educational expectations vary not only from culture to culture, but also from class to class. While middle- or upper-class families may expect their daughter or son to attend a four-year university after graduating from high school, other families may expect their child to immediately begin working full-time, as many within their family have done before.

The Long Road to Adulthood for Millennials

2008 was a year of financial upheaval in the United States. Rampant property foreclosures and bank failures set off a chain of events leading to government distrust, loan defaults, and large-scale unemployment. How has this affected the United States’ young adults?

Millennials, sometimes also called Gen Y, is a term that describes the generation born from approximately 1982 to 2000, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. While the recession was in full swing, many were in the process of entering, attending, or graduating from high school or college. With unemployment at its second-highest levels since the Great Depression of the 1930s, large numbers of graduates were unable to find work, sometimes moving back in with their parents and struggling to pay back student loans.

According to the New York Times, this economic malaise is causing Millennials to postpone what most Americans consider to be adulthood: “The traditional cycle seems to have gone off course, as young people remain untethered to romantic partners or to permanent homes, going back to school for lack of better options, traveling, avoiding commitments, competing ferociously for unpaid internships or temporary (and often grueling) Teach for America jobs, forestalling the beginning of adult life” (Henig 2010). The term "Boomerang Generation" has been used to describe recent college graduates for whom lack of adequate employment upon leaving school often leads to a return to the parental home (Davidson 2014).

The five milestones that define adulthood, Henig writes, are “completing school, leaving home, becoming financially independent, marrying, and having a child” (Henig 2010). These social milestones are taking longer for Millennials to attain, if they’re attained at all. Sociologists wonder what long-term impact this generation’s situation may have on society as a whole.

In the process of socialization, adulthood brings a new set of challenges and expectations, as well as new roles to fill. As the aging process moves forward, social roles continue to evolve. Pleasures of youth, such as wild nights out and serial dating, become less acceptable in the eyes of society. Responsibility and commitment are emphasized as pillars of adulthood, and men and women are expected to “settle down.” During this period, many people enter into marriage or a civil union, bring children into their families, and focus on a career path. They become partners or parents instead of students or significant others.

Just as young children pretend to be doctors or lawyers, play house, and dress up, adults also engage in anticipatory socialization, the preparation for future life roles. Examples would include a couple who cohabitate before marriage, or soon-to-be parents who read infant care books and prepare their home for the new arrival. As part of anticipatory socialization, adults who are financially able begin planning for their retirement, saving money, and looking into future healthcare options. The transition into any new life role, despite the social structure that supports it, can be difficult.

Think It Over

Consider a person who is joining a sorority or fraternity, attending college or boarding school, or even a child beginning kindergarten. How is the process the student goes through a form of socialization? What new cultural behaviors must the student adapt to?

Resocialization

Resocialization

If socialization is the lifelong process of learning the values and norms of a given society, then resocialization refers to undergoing this process again by drastically changing one's values and beliefs. Typically, this occurs in a new environment where the old rules no longer apply. According to Erving Goffman (1961) total institutions such as private boarding schools, the military, jails or prisons, and mental institutions provide such environments because they are effectively cut off from the larger society and are highly regulated. This regulation includes strict norms (i.e., uniform, hairstyle, daily schedule, communication, etc.) and comprehensive rules. Typically, a single authority figure such as a prison warden, drill sergeant, high ranking military officer, or headmaster is in charge and oversees staff to enforce the regulations.

About a dozen female members of the U.S. Air Force are shown outside marching in formation. Figure 5. In basic training, members of the Air Force are taught to walk, move, and look like each other. (Photo courtesy of Staff Sergeant Desiree N. Palacios, U.S. Air Force/Wikimedia Commons


Sociologist Harold Garfinkel (1956) coined the term degradation ceremony (also known as "status degradation ceremony") and described a process through which people who have usually wronged society in some way are marked and punished to reaffirm the existing norms. They are often stripped of their former identity and given a new, lower-status identity. 

Initiation Rituals

On some occasions, degradation ceremonies are used to initiate people into total institutions like schools, mental hospitals, prisons, or military units. The purpose of a ceremony in this context is to deprive people of their former identities and dignity in order make them more accepting of external control. The "perp walk," wherein a person suspected of committing criminal acts is publicly arrested and led into a police car or station, is a common example of this kind of degradation ceremony. Invasive searches in jails and prisons, being assigned a number, having one's hair cut and jewelry taken, and being issued a prison uniform are all examples of initiation rituals. Through a variety of such processional steps, one's identity is diminished and replaced with that of a jail or prison inmate, for example. With the exception of tattoos, any representations of material culture such as piercings or jewelry, is removed. The resocialization process continues as one learns the systems of value and social norms necessary for survival in this type of total institution. A norm that would have been previously unacceptable, such as using an open toilet in a shared room, is now a daily occurrence. Here the common value of personal privacy has to be discarded to some extent as a result of external constraints. 

When entering the army, soldiers have their hair cut short, their old clothes are removed, and they are issued matching uniforms. These individuals must give up any markers of their former identity as a "civilian" in order to be resocialized into a new identity as a “soldier.” In the military, soldiers go through basic training together, where they learn new rules and bond with one another. They follow structured schedules set by their leaders. Soldiers must keep their areas clean for inspection, learn to march in correct formations, and salute when in the presence of superiors. Values that might have been part of civilian life such as individuality and privacy are typically discarded in boot camp, an intensive period of time in which soldiers are trained physically and mentally. Marine Corps Boot Camp is intended to "break" incoming civilians and rebuild them as Marines. 

These examples of resocialization are within total institutions, but the process is sometimes more gentle outside of these extreme environments. To enter a senior care home, an elderly person often must leave a family home and give up many belongings which were part of his or her long-standing identity. Though caretakers guide the elderly compassionately, the process can still produce feelings of loss and disorientation. 

Returning to a more normal life after having lived in a total institution requires yet another process of resocialization. In the U.S. military, soldiers learn discipline and a capacity for hard work. They set aside personal goals to achieve a mission, and they take pride in the accomplishments of their units. Many soldiers who leave the military transition these skills into excellent careers. Others find themselves lost upon leaving, uncertain about the outside world and what to do next. The process of resocialization to civilian life is not a simple one.

Similarly, for people who have spent time in jail or prison, resocialization to the outside world is extremely difficult. One classic example from The Shawshank Redemption (1994) occurs when "Red" (Morgan Freeman), is released as an elderly black man who had spent his life in prison. He obtains a job working as a bagger at the grocery store and asks the white manager, "Restroom break, Boss?" to which his manager waves him over and says, "You don't need to ask me every time you need to take a piss."[2] This quick exchange signals Red's difficulty in acclimating to the freedom to use the restroom as needed, and also demonstrates the sweeping societal changes in racial dynamics he missed while in prison. The scene also displays his manager's discomfort with the racial and age-based dynamics in play. 

Further Research

Homelessness is an endemic problem among veterans. Many soldiers leave the military, perhaps after one or several combat deployments, and experience difficulty resocializing into civilian life. Learn more about the issues surrounding resocializing veterans.

Think It Over

  • Goffman included schools in his list of total institutions. In what ways do schools strip students of their identities and reshape values and norms?
  • Do you think resocialization requires a total institution? Why, or why not? Can you think of any other ways someone could be resocialized?
  • What other groups utilize degradation ceremonies to initiate members? What ethical questions do such ceremonies raise?


Glossary



anticipatory socialization:

the way we prepare for future life roles

degradation ceremony:

the process by which new members of a total institution lose aspects of their old identities and are given new ones

hidden curriculum:

the informal teaching done in schools that socializes children to societal norms

peer group:

a group made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests

resocialization:

the process by which old behaviors are removed and new behaviors are learned in their place

total institutions:

a closed social system that is highly regulated with strict norms, rules and schedules and generally a single authority figure who oversees staff to carry out rule enforcement




  1. Darabont, "F., Marvin, N., Robbins, T., Freeman, M., Gunton, B., Sadler, W., Brown, C., ... Warner Home Video (Firm). (2004). The Shawshank redemption. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures."
  2. Darabont, "F., Marvin, N., Robbins, T., Freeman, M., Gunton, B., Sadler, W., Brown, C., ... Warner Home Video (Firm). (2004). The Shawshank redemption. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures."

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